For instance CYP1A1, CYP1A2 and to a lesser extent CYP1B1 [58,59] can catalyse the oxidation of retinaldehyde
to ATRA while CYP1A1 and CYP1A2 as well as CYP1B1, CYP3A4, CYP3A5 and CYP2D6 catalyse the first steps of ATRA synthesis, from retinol to retinaldehyde
For example, aldehyde oxidase (probably identical to retinaldehyde
oxidase) irreversibly converts retinaldehyde
to retinoic acid, which mediates hematopoiesis and progenitor cell differentiation through its effects on Hox gene expression during embryogenesis (Look 1997; Tocci et al.
This family of cosmeceuticals includes retinoic acid, retinol, retinaldehyde
and vitamin A esters.
It contains Retinaldehyde
which helps lessen the appearance of small blood vessels, organic butchers broom and citrus to prevent broken capillaries, Dextran Sulphate to reduce water retention and Avene thermal spring water to cool.
Available in both light and rich formulations, Avene D-Pigment Dark Spot Corrector contains three skin-brightening active ingredients (Melanyde and patented retinaldehyde
plus pre-tocopheil) that work synergistically to combat dark spots.
Retinol (vitamin A) is oxidized into retinaldehyde
and then into retinoic acid, the biologically active form of vitamin A.
A number of different retinoids are found in the over-the-counter market including retinol, retinaldehyde
and retinyl palmitate.
Draelos singled out Retinol, as well as retinaldehyde
and retinyl propionate as the ones that come closest.