resuscitation


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Related to resuscitation: cardiopulmonary resuscitation, neonatal resuscitation, resuscitation equipment

resuscitation

 [re-sus″ĭ-ta´shun]
1. restoration to life or consciousness of one apparently dead, or whose respirations had ceased; see also artificial respiration.
2. in the nursing interventions classification, a nursing intervention defined as administering emergency measures to sustain life.
cardiopulmonary resuscitation see cardiopulmonary resuscitation.
resuscitation: fetus in the nursing interventions classification, a nursing intervention defined as administering emergency measures to improve placental perfusion or correct fetal acid-base status.
fluid resuscitation
1. the correction of fluid volume imbalances, especially in patients with burn injuries.
2. in the nursing interventions classification, a nursing intervention defined as administering prescribed intravenous fluids rapidly.
mouth-to-mouth resuscitation a method of artificial respiration in which the rescuer covers the patient's mouth with his own and exhales vigorously, inflating the patient's lungs.
resuscitation: neonate in the nursing interventions classification, a nursing intervention defined as administering emergency measures to support adaptation of the neonate to extrauterine life.

re·sus·ci·ta·tion

(rē-sŭs'i-tā'shŭn),
Revival from potential or apparent death.
[L. resuscitatio]

resuscitation

/re·sus·ci·ta·tion/ (-sus″ĭ-ta´shun) restoration to life of one apparently dead.
cardiopulmonary resuscitation  (CPR) the reestablishing of heart and lung action after cardiac arrest or apparent sudden death resulting from electric shock, drowning, respiratory arrest, and other causes. The two major components of CPR are artificial ventilation and closed chest cardiac massage.

resuscitation1

[risus′itā′shən]
Etymology: L, resuscitare, to revive
the process of sustaining the vital functions of a person in respiratory or cardiac failure while reviving him or her by using techniques of artificial respiration and cardiac massage, correcting acid-base imbalance, and treating the cause of failure. See also cardiopulmonary resuscitation. resuscitate, v.

resuscitation2

a nursing intervention from the Nursing Interventions Classification (NIC) defined as administering emergency measures to sustain life. See also Nursing Interventions Classification.

resuscitation

Critical care The restoration of consciousness to a person who appears dead. See Active compression-decompression-cardiopulmonary resuscitation, Cardiopulmonary resuscitation, Fluid resuscitation, Mouth-to-snout resuscitation.

re·sus·ci·ta·tion

(rē-sŭs'i-tā'shŭn)
Revival from potential or apparent death.
[L. resuscitatio]

resuscitation

(re-sus?i-ta'shon) [L. resuscitare, to raise up again, rebuild]
Revival from a serious illness or injury.

active compression decompression cardiopulmonary resuscitation

See: active compression decompression cardiopulmonary resuscitation.
Enlarge picture
CARDIOPULMONARY RESUSCITATION: open airway by raising chin and tilting head backward from chest
Enlarge picture
CARDIOPULMONARY RESUSCITATION: external chest compression

cardiopulmonary resuscitation

Abbreviation: CPR
In emergency cardiac care, the opening of the airway, provision of artificial breathing, and assisting the circulation until definitive treatment can restore spontaneous cardiac, pulmonary, and cerebral function. Synonym: basic life support (2)

Patient care

In emergency cardiac care, CPR involves either opening the airway, providing artificial breathing, and assisting circulation with chest compressions (until definitive treatments can restore spontaneous cardiac, pulmonary, and cerebral function) or providing chest compressions alone, without rescue breathing. When trained providers are available, CPR includes defibrillation with automated external defibrillators. In the U.S., the American Heart Association (AHA) develops and disseminates standard techniques for emergency cardiac care.

The first step in CPR is to ensure that an unarousable patient needs cardiopulmonary support and is not merely asleep or unconscious. If the patient does not respond to a loud voice or gentle shaking, the best thing a rescuer can do is to call for skilled assistance because successful resuscitation usually depends on the speed with which the patient can be defibrillated.

Before the defibrillator arrives, the rescuer can either position the patient for chest compressions only or begin rescue breathing. The patient should be placed supine on a firm, flat surface, with care taken to protect his cervical spine if traumatic injury is suspected. Kneeling at the level of the patient's shoulder, the rescuer performing rescue breathing may open the patient's airway, either with the jaw-thrust or the head-tilt chin-lift technique. If foreign bodies are present in the airway, they must be removed; dentures must also be removed if they interfere with resuscitation. Next, breathing is assessed by listening for breath sounds at the nose and lips and watching for the rise and fall of the chest. If these signs are not present, the patient is apneic, and rescue breathing can be performed. Survival rates of patients undergoing CPR are roughly equivalent with or without rescue breathing.

Rescue breathing can be performed with mouth-to-mouth technique or through a mask with a one-way valve if one is available. The rescuer gives two deep, slow positive-pressure breaths to the patient, the duration of each breath depending on the patient's age. If the supplied breaths meet obvious resistance, the rescuer should make another attempt to reopen the airway, and, if this is ineffective, to clear the airway with the Heimlich maneuver in children and adults. Infants should receive chest thrusts and blows to the back instead of the Heimlich maneuver.

The AHA formerly suggested checking the victim for a pulse after the first two breaths but eliminated the pulse check in its revised guidelines of 2000. If the patient is not breathing on his own, rescue breathing continues. If there is no pulse, external chest compression is begun and continued, with periodically interposed ventilations, until a defibrillator arrives or the patient revives. The precise number of ventilations and chest compressions per minute depends on the patient's age and the number of rescuers. For a single rescuer caring for an adult patient, two breaths are given for every 15 chest compressions. According to the AHA, for resuscitation purposes, infants are those who are up to a year old, children are from 1 to 8 years old, and adults are over the age of 8.

Compressions are given to adults (the usual victims of cardiac arrest) at the center of the sternum between the nipples, with the heel of one hand below the other hand; the fingers of the two hands are interlaced for support and to minimize the possibility of fracturing the ribs. The rescuer's elbows should be locked and straight, and the direction of compression should be exactly perpendicular to the patient's chest.

The chest is depressed 1.5 to 2.0 in for a normal-sized adult. For a child, the chest is depressed 1.0 to 1.5 in; for an infant, 0.5 to 1.0 in. The chest should return to its normally inflated position after each compression.

When professional rescuers arrive, the patient should be defibrillated immediately. If a defibrillator is not available, two-person CPR continues; the two rescuers alternate in giving rescue breaths and chest compressions to minimize fatigue. Ventilation and chest compressions are held for 5 sec at the end of the first minute and every few minutes after to determine whether the patient has responded. illustration; advanced cardiac life support; defibrillation; emergency cardiac care;

cerebral resuscitation

The restoration of a patient's normal neurological function due to effective revival from cardiopulmonary arrest.

goal-directed resuscitation

Precise adjustments in a septic patient's hemodynamics, oxygenation, and volume status to optimize his or her chances of survival.

hypotensive resuscitation

Low-volume resuscitation.

load-distributing band cardiopulmonary resuscitation

Abbreviation: LDB-CPR
Automated chest compressions made during cardiopulmonary resuscitation, in which the thorax of the patient is wrapped in a compression belt that alternately squeezes the chest and allows it to return to its original shape.

low-volume resuscitation

Treatment of a seriously ill patient with small, rather than large volumes of intravenous fluids and without an explicit attempt to restore normal blood pressures. Synonym: hypotensive resuscitation

mechanical piston cardiopulmonary resuscitation

The administration of chest compressions to a victim of cardiac arrest with a plunger that alternately compresses the chest and allows it to return to its original position.

mouth-to-mouth resuscitation

Provision of respiratory gases, consisting of approximately 16% oxygen, to a patient in respiratory or cardiopulmonary arrest by exhaling directly into the open mouth of the unconscious victim. Because of potential exposure to infectious disease, this technique is used only when a pocket mask or other barrier device is not available.
See: artificial respiration; cardiopulmonary resuscitation

neonatal resuscitation

The prevention of death or injury to newborn infants with techniques to support the newborn's airway, breathing, circulation, and body temperature. In the U.S. about 1% of all newborns require intensive resuscitative efforts immediately after birth. Most are infants born preterm (before 37 weeks’ gestation). Failure to recognize and treat neonatal emergencies may result in inadequate oxygen delivery to the brain, heart, lungs, and other organs. Seizures, cognitive impairment, encephalopathy, or cerebral palsy may result from delayed recognition of asphyxia in the neonatal period.

Patient care

The cornerstone of neonatal resuscitation is the prompt recognition of the newborn who is failing to breathe and perfuse organs effectively. Immediately after birth, the newborn should be dried, gently suctioned, and assessed for: adequate respiratory effort (versus apnea); a heart rate above 100 beats/min; good muscle tone (as opposed to flaccidity); skin color that indicates effective cardiac output (rather than cyanosis); and evidence of full-term versus pre-term birth.

The neonate who lacks some of these findings should be professionally managed, with warming, gentle stimulation (e.g., rubbing its back gently with a towel to stimulate effective breathing) and airway suctioning. When apnea, hypothermia, respiratory distress, bradycardia, or poor skin perfusion is evident, evidenced-based interventions (e.g., those recommended by the Neonatal Resuscitation Program of the American Academy of Pediatrics and the AHA) should be begun immediately.

Positive-pressure ventilation (PPV), with breaths supplied via a bag mask device, effectively resuscitates most infants at risk for neonatal asphyxia. Those who have meconium in the upper airways (evidenced by meconium staining of the amniotic fluid), as well as inadequate breathing, slow heart rate, and poor muscle tone, require endotracheal intubation and suctioning, preferably by an experienced practitioner.

Most neonates respond favorably to airway and ventilatory management, breathe spontaneously, and maintain a heart rate above 100 beats/min. Chest compressions should be begun only if the heart rate remains below 60 beats/min despite 30 sec of PPV with 100% oxygen. Chest compressions should cease when the heart rate is above 60 beats/min, but PPV should be continued until the heart rate is above 100 beats/min and the newborn has begun to breathe on his own. PPV should always accompany chest compressions and be coordinated so that a breath is provided after every third compression. After 30 sec of PPV and chest compressions, the compressions should be stopped and the heart rate evaluated while PPV is continued. If there is no palpable pulse at the base of the umbilical cord, PPV should be stopped and the chest auscultated to determine the heart rate.

Chest compressions are most effective when the sternum is depressed to a depth equal to one third of the anteroposterior chest diameter of the newborn. The preferred technique is to use the thumbs to depress the sternum, with the hands encircling the newborn’s thorax. An alternative is to perform compressions with two fingers on the same hand, so that the umbilical vein can be cannulated by another resuscitator. Ninety compressions a minute should be coordinated with 30 positive-pressure breaths, with care taken to avoid simultaneous compressions and ventilations.

Access to the circulation can be gained through the umbilical vein or intraosseously into the tibia. Normal saline or lactated Ringer’s solution is the preferred fluid. Narcotic antidotes should be given to reverse any depression in respiratory or neurological status from maternal narcotic overdose. Inotropes such as epinephrine should be used when ventilation and chest compressions do not revive the dying infant.

In prolonged resuscitations, blood gases should be drawn to help guide additional therapies.

Resuscitative interventions that have not proved to be helpful include the use of high-dose epinephrine, the induction of cerebral hypothermia, and the use of carbon dioxide detectors on the endotracheal tube.

Resuscitation should not be initiated for children born with severe anomalies incompatible with life, e.g., anencephaly or birth weights of less than 400 g. Resuscitative efforts that do not resolve apnea and pulselessness after more than 10 min are rarely successful in newborns. In these circumstances, efforts may be discontinued.

oral resuscitation

See: artificial respiration

resuscitation

1. Restoration of a stable physiological condition to a person whose heart action, blood pressure or body oxygenation have dropped to critical levels.
2. Active measures to treat shock.

Resuscitation

Bringing a person back to life after an apparent death or in cases of impending death.

resuscitation (rē·sˈ·si·tāˑ·shn),

n.pl revival methods that maintain vital signs for a person in cardiac or respiratory failure. Cardiac massage and artificial respiration techniques are employed, and fluid and acid-base imbalances are corrected.

resuscitation (rēsus´itā´shən),

n restoration of life or consciousness to one who appears to be dead.

resuscitation

restoration to life or consciousness of an animal apparently dead or dying, or whose respirations have ceased. See also artificial respiration.

cardiopulmonary resuscitation
an emergency technique used in cardiac arrest to re-establish heart and lung function until more advanced life support is available. See also cardiopulmonary resuscitation.
cerebral resuscitation
treatment to counteract the cerebral edema resulting from low cerebral blood flow and hypoxia that occurs during cardiopulmonary resuscitation.
resuscitation equipment
inludes cardiac defibrillator, laryngoscope, endotracheal tubes, tracheotomy tubes, plus the stimulants and the administration sets needed in an emergency.
References in periodicals archive ?
Issue details: Resuscitation, Vol 95 (October 2015) published by Elsevier
American Burn Association practice guidelines burn shock resuscitation.
ZOLL Medical Corporation is committed to developing technologies that help advance the practice of resuscitation.
Lin will be presented with the Fellowship Award on November 13, 2010, at the Resuscitation Science Symposium (ReSS) meeting, which is held each year in conjunction with the AHA's Scientific Sessions.
A 2000 study in the United States looked at the attitudes, benefits, beliefs and concerns of family members and health care providers involved in invasive procedures and cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR).
The mission of the NRCPR hospital safety program was to reduce disability and death from cardiac and respiratory emergencies by providing an evidence-based, quality improvement program of patient safety, medical emergency team response, effective resuscitation and post-emergency care," said Beth Mancini, R.
The most common way of doing resuscitation is through a series of chest compressions, airway management techniques and rescue breathing known as cardiopulmonary resuscitation, or CPR.
From the researcher's experience, allowing family members to remain with patients during resuscitation efforts is a relatively new concept in Rwanda.
Five cycles of cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) implies five cycles of 30 compressions followed by 2 ventilations.
It also recognises the demanding and complex work a resuscitation nurse does in the co-ordination (of patient care and treatment)," said Hornsby ED's Nursing Unit Manager (NUM), Rosalyn Ferguson.
Until 2007, when paramedics were called to the scene of a cardiac arrest, they would attempt resuscitation unless there were signs of obvious death, such as rigor morris, or the family or nursing home staff could immediately produce a valid, written prehospital Do Not Attempt Resuscitate (DNAR) form.
Lifeguards commenced resuscitation on the beach including cardiac massage and bag-valve-mask ventilation.