respondent conditioning


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Related to respondent conditioning: operant conditioning, instrumental conditioning, Stimulus-stimulus theory

conditioning

 [kon-dish´un-ing]
1. in physical medicine, improvement of physical health by a program of exercises; called also physical conditioning.
2. in psychology, a form of learning in which a response is elicited by a neutral stimulus which previously had been repeatedly presented in conjunction with the stimulus that originally elicited the response. Called also classical or respondent conditioning.

The concept had its beginnings in experimental techniques for the study of reflexes. The traditional procedure is based on the work of Ivan P. Pavlov, a Russian physiologist. In this technique the experimental subject is a dog that is harnessed in a sound-shielded room. The neutral stimulus is the sound of a metronome or bell which occurs each time the dog is presented with food, and the response is the production of saliva by the dog. Eventually the sound of the bell or metronome produces salivation, even though the stimulus that originally elicited the response (the food) is no longer presented.

In the technique just described, the conditioned stimulus is the sound of the bell or metronome, and the conditioned response is the salivation that occurs when the sound is heard. The food, which was the original stimulus to salivation, is the unconditioned stimulus and the salivation that occurred when food was presented is the unconditioned response.

Reinforcement is said to take place when the conditioned stimulus is appropriately followed by the unconditioned stimulus. If the unconditioned stimulus is withheld during a series of trials, the procedure is called extinction because the frequency of the conditioned response will gradually decrease when the stimulus producing the response is no longer present. The process of extinction eventually results in a return of the preconditioning level of behavior.
aversive conditioning learning in which punishment or other unpleasant stimulation is used to associate negative feelings with an undesirable response.
classical conditioning conditioning (def. 2).
instrumental conditioning (operant conditioning) learning in which a particular response is elicited by a stimulus because that response produces desirable consequences (reward). It differs from classical conditioning in that the reinforcement takes place only after the subject performs a specific act that has been previously designated. If no unconditioned stimulus is used to bring about this act, the desired behavior is known as an operant. Once the behavior occurs with regularity the behavior may be called a conditioned response.

The traditional example of instrumental conditioning uses the Skinner box, named after B. F. Skinner, an American behavioral psychologist. The subject, a rat, is kept in the box and becomes conditioned to press a bar by being rewarded with food pellets each time its early random movements caused it to press against the bar.

The principles and techniques related to instrumental conditioning are used clinically in behavior therapy to help patients eliminate undesirable behavior and substitute for it newly learned behavior that is more appropriate and acceptable.
physical conditioning conditioning (def. 1).
respondent conditioning conditioning (def. 2).
work conditioning a physical exercise program designed to restore specific strength, flexibility, and endurance for return to work following injury, disease, or medically imposed rest; it may be part of a complete work hardening program when other aspects of functional restoration are required.

re·spon·dent con·di·tion·ing

a type of conditioning, first studied by Pavlov, in which a previously neutral stimulus (bell sound) elicits a response (salivation) as a result of pairing it (associating it contiguously in time) a number of times with an unconditioned or natural stimulus for that response (food shown to a hungry dog).

respondent conditioning

Pavlov,

Ivan, Russian physiologist and Nobel laureate, 1849-1936.
Pavlov behavioral theory
pavlovian conditioning - a type of conditioning in which a previously neutral stimulus elicits a response as a result of pairing it a number of times with an unconditioned stimulus for that response. Synonym(s): respondent conditioning
Pavlov method - the method of studying conditioned reflex activity by the observation of a motor indicator, such as the salivary or electroencephalographic response.
Pavlov pouch - a section of the stomach of a dog used in studies of gastric secretions. Synonym(s): miniature stomach; Pavlov stomach
Pavlov reflex - peripheral vasoconstriction and a rise in blood pressure in response to a fall in pressure in the great veins. Synonym(s): auriculopressor reflex
Pavlov stomach - Synonym(s): Pavlov pouch
Pavlov theory of schizophrenia - belief that symptoms of schizophrenia result from an inhibited state of the cerebral cortex.

conditioning

1. learning; behavior modification in animals.
2. preparation of young cattle for shipment and entry into a feedlot. The procedure varies but usually includes vaccination against potential pathogens, prophylactic treatment for worms and lice, administration of vitamins and when necessary feeding of antibiotics and introduction to the kind of diet likely to be fed.
3. tenderizing of meat by careful storage at an appropriate temperature for a sufficiently long period.

aversive conditioning
behavior modification using an adverse stimulus in response to the inappropriate or undesirable behavior. Called also avoidance.
classical conditioning
a form of learning in which a response is elicited by a neutral stimulus which previously had been repeatedly presented in conjunction with the stimulus that originally elicited the response. Called also respondent conditioning, Pavlovian conditioning.
The concept had its beginnings in experimental techniques for the study of reflexes. The traditional procedure is based on the work of Ivan P. Pavlov, a Russian physiologist. In this technique the experimental subject is a dog that is harnessed in a sound-shielded room. The neutral stimulus is the sound of a metronome or bell which occurs each time the dog is presented with food, and the response is the production of saliva by the dog. Eventually the sound of the bell or metronome produces salivation, even though the stimulus that originally elicited the response (the food) is no longer presented.
instrumental conditioning
takes place only after the subject performs a specific act that has been previously designated. The most common form of this conditioning uses an instrument such as a bar that must be pressed by the subject to achieve the delivery of food or other reward.
odor conditioning
classical conditioning to odors of essential oils is an element in aromatherapy.
operant conditioning
learning in which a particular response is elicited by a stimulus because that response produces desirable consequences (reward).
Pavlovian conditioning
see classical conditioning (above).
respondent conditioning
see classical conditioning (above).

respondent

an animal that responds to a particular stimulus.

respondent behavior
reflex responses elicited by stimuli; generally not under voluntary control.
respondent conditioning
see classical conditioning.
References in periodicals archive ?
As outlined earlier, respondent conditioning of words with positive and negative functions have been used to change subjects' evaluations of neutral stimuli (Staats & Staats, 1957), but after the process was extended to third-order conditioning, results were not successful (Cicero & Tyron, 1989; Tyron & Cicero, 1989).
In effect, each respondent conditioning trial consisted of a combination of trace and simultaneous conditioning (see Chance, 1988, p.
The preliminary respondent conditioning phase of the experiment lasted approximately 30 min.
The experimenter terminated the training if visual inspection of the graphical representations of SRRs (continuously fed from the polygraph) suggested a response differential between Bi and 82 across the 12 respondent conditioning trials.
This test began immediately and without warning following the final respondent conditioning trial.
The blocking effect, in which a prior history of respondent conditioning with one stimulus attenuates the later development of stimulus control by another stimulus (Kamin, 1969), has also been observed in operant procedures (e.
Other procedural difficulties have been noted, including the subject-controlled delay between the onset of a discriminative stimulus and reinforcer delivery in operant procedures, which may further preclude respondent conditioning of the discriminative stimulus (see Dinsmoor, 1983, for a discussion of these and other procedural variables relevant to the distinction between discriminative stimuli and conditioned reinforcers).
In some situations the recording of an elicited response by a previously neutral stimulus is taken as evidence for respondent conditioning, and in other situations the recording of a change in response frequency is taken as evidence for operant conditioning.
However, respondent conditioning has been reliably demonstrated to occur in one direction only, so it is difficult to explain equivalence relations in this way without also assuming the acquisition of sample stimulus functions by matching comparisons, the parallel in respondent procedures being the acquisition of neutral stimulus functions by a US, a phenomenon for which there is little empirical support.
The respondent conditioning model upon which semantic conditioning is based suggests that conditioned functions to verbal or nonverbal events should invariably elicit some conditioned response irrespective of context (see Zuriff, 1985).
As with respondent conditioning, semantic conditioning operations are based on unidirectional S-R relations such that a CS elicits some CR, but not the other way around (CR elicits a CS).
The difficulties in specifying the nature and function of semantic meaning relations via respondent conditioning operations have been noted elsewhere (cf.