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As outlined earlier, respondent conditioning of words with positive and negative functions have been used to change subjects' evaluations of neutral stimuli (Staats & Staats, 1957), but after the process was extended to third-order conditioning, results were not successful (Cicero & Tyron, 1989; Tyron & Cicero, 1989).
In effect, each respondent conditioning trial consisted of a combination of trace and simultaneous conditioning (see Chance, 1988, p.
The preliminary respondent conditioning phase of the experiment lasted approximately 30 min.
The experimenter terminated the training if visual inspection of the graphical representations of SRRs (continuously fed from the polygraph) suggested a response differential between Bi and 82 across the 12 respondent conditioning trials.
This test began immediately and without warning following the final respondent conditioning trial.
The blocking effect, in which a prior history of respondent conditioning with one stimulus attenuates the later development of stimulus control by another stimulus (Kamin, 1969), has also been observed in operant procedures (e.
Other procedural difficulties have been noted, including the subject-controlled delay between the onset of a discriminative stimulus and reinforcer delivery in operant procedures, which may further preclude respondent conditioning of the discriminative stimulus (see Dinsmoor, 1983, for a discussion of these and other procedural variables relevant to the distinction between discriminative stimuli and conditioned reinforcers).
In some situations the recording of an elicited response by a previously neutral stimulus is taken as evidence for respondent conditioning, and in other situations the recording of a change in response frequency is taken as evidence for operant conditioning.
However, respondent conditioning has been reliably demonstrated to occur in one direction only, so it is difficult to explain equivalence relations in this way without also assuming the acquisition of sample stimulus functions by matching comparisons, the parallel in respondent procedures being the acquisition of neutral stimulus functions by a US, a phenomenon for which there is little empirical support.
The respondent conditioning model upon which semantic conditioning is based suggests that conditioned functions to verbal or nonverbal events should invariably elicit some conditioned response irrespective of context (see Zuriff, 1985).
As with respondent conditioning, semantic conditioning operations are based on unidirectional S-R relations such that a CS elicits some CR, but not the other way around (CR elicits a CS).
The difficulties in specifying the nature and function of semantic meaning relations via respondent conditioning operations have been noted elsewhere (cf.