11-13) Given the involvement of tumour thrombus invading into the IVC from two renal veins
, we felt an open midline incision enabled an easier approach and minimized the risk of complications related to adjacent abdominal organs.
Placement of endo-GIA stapler on the left renal vein
Inferior vena cava, renal vein
invasion or thrombus is seen in <10% of the cases, but may support the diagnosis when RCC is suspected In renal cell carcinoma, the intravenous extension of the tumor through the renal vein
to the inferior vena cava is usually not a vascular invasion per say, but in some cases the intravenous tumor may involves the venous wall structure.
Nutcracker phenomenon of the left renal vein
causing left renal vein
With reference to the embryology, a retroaortic renal vein
is found when the ventral arch of the renal collar goes into atrophy leaving the dorsal side of the arch patent.
Renal artery and/or renal vein
thrombosis usually results in loss of the allograft.
The prerenal segment of IVC, as well as the left renal vein
are formed out of the subcardinal system.
An unusual case of right and left testicular arteries arching over the left renal vein
To our knowledge spontaneous erosion of a staghorn calculus in the renal vein
Segmental analysis of sodium reabsorption during renal vein
The actual length of renal vein
proper was short and segmental tributaries of renal veins
were unusual in having long pre hilar length and large size with complex arrangement leading to hilar congestion.
Ninety-eight percent of the varicoceles without specific causes occur on the left side apparently because the left testicular vein connects to the renal vein
at a 90 degree angle, while the right testicular vein drains at a lesser angle.