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a form of rickets occurring in children in association with and apparently caused by renal disease with hyperphosphatemia.
a condition characterized by rachitic changes in the skeleton and caused by chronic nephritis. See also renal osteodystrophy.
renal rickets(1) Osteitis fibrosa cystica, see there.
(2) Parathyroid osteodystrophy.
re·nal rick·ets(rē'năl rik'ĕts)
A form of rickets occurring in children in association with and apparently caused by renal disease with hyperphosphatemia.
renal ricketsLoss of mineralization of bone occurring in severe kidney disease in which the kidney is unable to convert vitamin D to its active form. The resulting failure of absorption of calcium from the intestine leads to low blood calcium and its withdrawal from bone. See also RICKETS.
re·nal rick·ets(rē'năl rik'ĕts)
Form in children due to renal disease with hyperphosphatemia.
pertaining to the kidney. See also kidney.
results from infected emboli and infarcts. Usually without localizing signs unless they are very large and palpable, or when they extend into the renal pelvis and cause pyelonephritis.
rare, incidental necropsy finding.
failure of the renal tissue to develop; unilateral agenesis causes compensatory hypertrophy in the single kidney; bilateral is fatal. Commonly accompanies genital tract malformation.
see Table 9.
avian renal hemorrhage
sporadic unexplained disease of turkeys; sudden death is common.
is conducted usually with a biopsy needle introduced percutaneously through the flank. In food animals it is possible to fix the left kidney via a rectal manipulation, but the right kidney can be impossible to reach.
renal capsular cyst
see feline perirenal cysts.
commonest in old male dogs. They are very large, spread locally and metastasize widely.
see urinary cast.
renal clearance tests
renal cortical fissures
external fissures created by the lobar structure of the large ruminant kidney.
renal cortical hypoplasia
see renal dysplasia (below).
renal cortical necrosis
results from patchy or complete renal ischemia and is part of the terminal state of many diseases, e.g. severe metritis, grain overload in cattle, azoturia in horses.
renal countercurrent system
incidental necropsy finding except for polycystic kidney disease. See also feline perirenal cysts.
inherited as an autosomal dominant trait in middle-aged German shepherd bitches with generalized nodular dermatofibrosis.
renal diabetes insipidus
see nephrogenic diabetes insipidus.
diverticuli of the renal pelvis.
reduced capacity to excrete metabolic products which accumulate systemically and are detectable clinicopathologically by renal function tests. The early stage of uremia.
small, misshapen kidneys at birth. May be caused by intrauterine infection of the fetus by virus, but numerous inherited renal dysplasias occur in dogs. They occur in several breeds and are manifested by signs of chronic renal insufficiency, e.g. polyuria, polydypsia, poor growth and weight gain, pale mucous membranes, and renal secondary osteodystrophia fibrosa, from an early age.
renal erythropoietic factor
inability of the kidney to maintain normal function. Impairment of kidney function affects most of the body's systems because of its important role in maintaining fluid balance, regulating the electrochemical composition of body fluids, providing constant protection against acid-base imbalance, and controlling blood pressure. See also kidney.
renal function tests
include blood urea nitrogen and serum creatinine estimations, tests of concentrating ability, tests of ability to excrete test substances, e.g. phenolsulfonphthalein (PSP) clearance test. Of the urine tests, only specific gravity (SG) has any significance in terms of a function test but abnormalities of urine should lead to a function test being conducted.
a fissure on the medial border of the kidney through which arteries, veins and ureter enter.
renal hypophosphatemic rickets
inherited as an X-linked dominant trait in children and mice; characterized by hypophosphatemia and normocalcemia due to failure of phosphate resorption in renal tubules, and skeletal deformities. Called also vitamin-resistant rickets.
results from embolic or thrombotic occlusion of renal arteries or branches. Clinical signs are those of renal colic initially followed by toxemia if the infarct is infected.
see renal dysfunction (above).
a significant cause of renal dysfunction and cortical and medullary necrosis. Is usually part of a general state of shock, dehydration and severe toxemia.
a large mass of a kidney, comprising the tissue contributing to each pyramid; kidneys may be unilobar (unipyramidal), e.g. cats, dogs, small ruminants, horses, or multilobar (multipyramidal), e.g. cattle, pigs.
small masses of kidney tissue comprising a medullary ray and its associated nephrons.
renal medullary necrosis
necrosis of the renal medulla due to restriction of blood flow in medullary vessels, usually due to venous occlusion.
renal medullary washout
see medullary solute washout.
renal osteodystrophy, renal osteitis fibrosa, renal osteitis fibrosa cystica
deposition of oxalate crystals in renal tubules of patients poisoned by dietary oxalate, usually in poisonous plants.
see renal papilla.
renal papillary necrosis
necrosis of renal papillae due usually to obstruction to urinary flow or poisoning or dehydration.
the chamber in the kidney into which the collecting tubules discharge urine and from which urine is voided into the ureter.
renal plasma flow
the effective rate of blood flow through the kidneys; the determining factor relative to the rate of glomerular filtration.
renal portal system
a system unique to birds; half to two thirds of the blood supply to the kidney comes from the hindlimbs via veins and terminates in peritubular capillaries where it is mixed with arteriolar blood coming from the glomeruli.
cessation of the excretory function of the kidney; oliguria.
renal spongiform encephalopathy
spongiform encephalopathy associated with renal failure.
renal tubular casts
see urinary cast.
renal vein thrombosis
commonly associated with renal amyloidosis in dogs.
a disease of young growing animals caused by a nutritional deficiency of phosphorus or vitamin D. There is a failure of calcification of osteoid and cartilage of the bones which become bowed and a persistence with enlargement of the epiphyses so that the joints appear swollen. The animals are lame and dentition is delayed. Radiological examination shows a wider and thicker growth plate.
osteomalacia; a rickets-like disease affecting adults.
hypervitaminosis D rickets
deposition of large amounts of osteoid matrix in the metaphyses with a delay in its mineralization occurs in feeding excessive amounts of vitamin D.
affected piglets are normal at birth but develop rickets indistinguishable from classical rickets. There is a defect in calcium absorption.
vitamin D-resistant rickets
a condition almost indistinguishable from ordinary rickets clinically but resistant to unusually large doses of vitamin D; it is often familial but may occur sporadically. In hypophosphatemic vitamin D-resistant rickets, hypophosphatemia is the main characteristic, while in hypocalcemic vitamin D-resistant rickets, the serum concentration of phosphate is within normal limits or nearly so, and the concentration of calcium is abnormally low.