dialysis [di-al´ĭ-sis] (Gr.)
the diffusion of solute molecules through a semipermeable membrane
, normally passing from the side of higher concentration to that of lower. A semipermeable
membrane is one that allows the passage of certain smaller molecules of such crystalloids as glucose
, but prevents passage of larger molecules such as the colloidal plasma proteins
. adj., adj
continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis
(CAPD) peritoneal dialysis involving the continuous presence of dialysis solution in the peritoneal cavity; see discussion at peritoneal dialysis
continuous cycling peritoneal dialysis
(CCPD) a procedure similar to continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis but taking place at night, using a machine to make several fluid exchanges automatically. See discussion at peritoneal dialysis
dialysis dysequilibrium syndrome
a condition occasionally seen following overly rapid hemodialysis
, characterized by increased intracranial pressure that causes nausea, headache, vomiting, restlessness, and a decreased level of consciousness. The neurological complications may lead to coma and death if not treated. The cause of this syndrome is thought to be the rapid decrease in the blood urea nitrogen
that accompanies dialysis. Called also dialysis dysequilibrium
intermittent peritoneal dialysis
(IPD) an older form of peritoneal dialysis in which dialysis solution is infused into the peritoneal cavity, allowed to equilibrate for 10 to 20 minutes, and then drained out. See discussion at peritoneal dialysis
dialysis (di-al'i-sis) ('i-sez?) plural.dialyses [ dia- + -lysis]
1. The passage of a solute through a membrane.
The diffusion of blood across a semipermeable membrane to remove toxic materials and to maintain fluid, electrolyte, and acid-base balance in cases of impaired kidney function or absence of the kidneys. hemodialysis
chronic ambulatory peritoneal dialysisContinuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis.
continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis Abbreviation: CAPD
Dialysis in which fluid is infused into the peritoneum through an implanted catheter and then drained from the body after absorbing metabolic toxins. The peritoneal lining serves as the dialytic membrane. CAPD is an alternative to hemodialysis for patients with end-stage renal disease. It removes fluids, electrolytes, and nitrogen-containing wastes by osmosis but is less efficient than hemodialysis. Scrupulous antiseptic technique is needed to avoid introducing infectious microorganisms into the dialysate and peritoneum. The technique has several benefits: it can be performed at home by patients (increasing their autonomy); it avoids the hypotension sometimes associated with hemodialysis; and it is better tolerated than hemodialysis because it is less likely to produce rapid shifts in the concentration of urea, electrolytes, and other solutes in the bloodstream. Synonym: chronic ambulatory peritoneal dialysis
See: peritoneal dialysis
continuous cyclic peritoneal dialysis Abbreviation: CCPD
Dialysis performed every night with fluid remaining in the peritoneal cavity until the next night.
intermittent peritoneal dialysis Abbreviation: IPD
Dialysis using automated equipment, often performed overnight. The fluid is drained from the peritoneal cavity at the end of the treatment.
Dialysis in which the lining of the peritoneal cavity is used as the dialyzing membrane, requiring less complex equipment and less specialized personnel than hemodialysis, little or no heparin, no blood loss, and minimal cardiovascular stress. Dialyzing fluid introduced into the peritoneal cavity is left to dwell there for a specified time and then passively drained.
Peritoneal dialysis is used to treat renal failure and, less commonly, certain types of poisoning, hypothermia, or heatstroke.
Although peritoneal dialysis may be performed anywhere by the patient, allowing him or her to be independent, regular follow-up with health care professionals is needed to optimize its safety and effectiveness.
Strict aseptic technique is maintained throughout the procedure. The patient is observed for signs of peritonitis, pain, respiratory difficulty, and low blood pressure. Peritoneal dialysis requires a semipermanent implantation of a catheter through the abdominal wall into the peritoneum, just below the umbilicus. Patients with a history of abdominal surgeries may have scarring; they are not candidates for peritoneal dialysis and should use hemodialysis, instead. The patient's understanding of the procedure and the reason for it, care of the peritoneal catheter, and symptoms of infection are verified. Medication schedule can be changed before and after dialysis. Urea clearance is less than with hemodialysis (60%), and excessive protein loss may necessitate a high protein diet. The patient's ability to adjust lifestyle to provide a balance of adequate rest and activity is evaluated.
pertaining to the kidney. See also kidney
results from infected emboli and infarcts. Usually without localizing signs unless they are very large and palpable, or when they extend into the renal pelvis and cause pyelonephritis.
rare, incidental necropsy finding.
failure of the renal tissue to develop; unilateral agenesis causes compensatory hypertrophy in the single kidney; bilateral is fatal. Commonly accompanies genital tract malformation.
avian renal hemorrhage
sporadic unexplained disease of turkeys; sudden death is common.
is conducted usually with a biopsy needle introduced percutaneously through the flank. In food animals it is possible to fix the left kidney via a rectal manipulation, but the right kidney can be impossible to reach.
renal capsular cyst
see feline perirenal cysts.
commonest in old male dogs. They are very large, spread locally and metastasize widely.
renal clearance tests
laboratory tests that determine the ability of the kidney to remove certain substances from the blood. See also phenolsulfonphthalein
clearance test, inulin
renal cortical fissures
external fissures created by the lobar structure of the large ruminant kidney.
renal cortical hypoplasia
see renal dysplasia (below).
renal cortical necrosis
results from patchy or complete renal ischemia and is part of the terminal state of many diseases, e.g. severe metritis, grain overload in cattle, azoturia in horses.
renal countercurrent system renal cyst
incidental necropsy finding except for polycystic kidney
disease. See also feline perirenal cysts
inherited as an autosomal dominant trait in middle-aged German shepherd bitches with generalized nodular dermatofibrosis.
the application of the principles of dialysis for treatment of renal failure (below). See also hemodialysis
diverticuli of the renal pelvis.
reduced capacity to excrete metabolic products which accumulate systemically and are detectable clinicopathologically by renal function tests. The early stage of uremia.
small, misshapen kidneys at birth. May be caused by intrauterine infection of the fetus by virus, but numerous inherited renal dysplasias occur in dogs. They occur in several breeds and are manifested by signs of chronic renal insufficiency, e.g. polyuria, polydypsia, poor growth and weight gain, pale mucous membranes, and renal secondary osteodystrophia fibrosa, from an early age.
renal erythropoietic factor
inability of the kidney to maintain normal function. Impairment of kidney function affects most of the body's systems because of its important role in maintaining fluid balance, regulating the electrochemical composition of body fluids, providing constant protection against acid-base imbalance, and controlling blood pressure. See also kidney
renal function tests
include blood urea nitrogen and serum creatinine estimations, tests of concentrating ability, tests of ability to excrete test substances, e.g. phenolsulfonphthalein (PSP) clearance test. Of the urine tests, only specific gravity (SG) has any significance in terms of a function test but abnormalities of urine should lead to a function test being conducted.
a fissure on the medial border of the kidney through which arteries, veins and ureter enter.
renal hypophosphatemic rickets
inherited as an X-linked dominant trait in children and mice; characterized by hypophosphatemia and normocalcemia due to failure of phosphate resorption in renal tubules, and skeletal deformities. Called also vitamin-resistant rickets.
results from embolic or thrombotic occlusion of renal arteries or branches. Clinical signs are those of renal colic initially followed by toxemia if the infarct is infected.
see renal dysfunction (above).
a significant cause of renal dysfunction and cortical and medullary necrosis. Is usually part of a general state of shock, dehydration and severe toxemia.
a large mass of a kidney, comprising the tissue contributing to each pyramid; kidneys may be unilobar (unipyramidal), e.g. cats, dogs, small ruminants, horses, or multilobar (multipyramidal), e.g. cattle, pigs.
small masses of kidney tissue comprising a medullary ray and its associated nephrons.
renal medullary necrosis
necrosis of the renal medulla due to restriction of blood flow in medullary vessels, usually due to venous occlusion.
renal osteodystrophy, renal osteitis fibrosa, renal osteitis fibrosa cystica renal oxalosis
deposition of oxalate crystals in renal tubules of patients poisoned by dietary oxalate, usually in poisonous plants.
renal papillary necrosis
necrosis of renal papillae due usually to obstruction to urinary flow or poisoning or dehydration.
the chamber in the kidney into which the collecting tubules discharge urine and from which urine is voided into the ureter.
renal plasma flow
the effective rate of blood flow through the kidneys; the determining factor relative to the rate of glomerular filtration.
renal portal system
a system unique to birds; half to two thirds of the blood supply to the kidney comes from the hindlimbs via veins and terminates in peritubular capillaries where it is mixed with arteriolar blood coming from the glomeruli.
cessation of the excretory function of the kidney; oliguria.
renal spongiform encephalopathy
spongiform encephalopathy associated with renal failure.
renal vein thrombosis
commonly associated with renal amyloidosis in dogs.
Patient discussion about renal dialysis
Q. why the renal doctor told my husband that he needs to eat a dozen of egg a week for protein,how it will help? it won`t afect his cholesterol,also i would like to know what role the protein plays on his treatment and what other foot its rich in protein that he can can take,without causing problems to his health.
A. if i understand correctly, your husband is diabetic. like my grandfather he probably developed a "Diabetic nephropathy" which is a long name to: kidney being destroyed because of blood vessels clotted by diabetes. because of that destruction the kidneys allow protein to go out in the urine. this is a dangerous situation,a protein in the name of "albomin" helps our blood to hold fluids in blood vessels. without it fluid will leave the blood and go to our organs. not a good situation. so he needs a lot of proteins. More discussions about renal dialysis
here is a list of a 100 protein rich foods: