calculus [kal´ku-lus] (pl. cal´culi) (L.)
an abnormal concretion, usually composed of mineral salts, occurring within the body, chiefly in hollow organs or their passages. Called also stone
. See also kidney stone
. adj., adj
a hard, stonelike concretion, varying in color from creamy yellow to black, that forms on the teeth or dental prostheses through calcification of dental plaque
; it begins as a yellowish film formed of calcium phosphate and carbonate, food particles, and other organic matter that is deposited on the teeth by the saliva. It should be removed regularly by a dentist or dental hygienist; if neglected, it can cause bacteria to lodge between the gums and the teeth, causing gum infection, dental caries
, loosening of the teeth, and other disorders. Called also tartar
a hard mass or concretion
formed in the bronchi around a small center of inorganic material, or from calcified portions of lung tissue or adjacent lymph nodes. Called also pneumolith
mammary calculus a concretion in one of the lactiferous ducts.
a urinary calculus
composed of a phosphate along with calcium oxalate and ammonium urate; it may be hard, soft, or friable, and so large that it may fill the renal pelvis and calices.
a urinary calculus
in the urethra
; symptoms vary according to the patient's sex and the site of lodgment.
[L.] an abnormal concretion, usually composed of mineral salts, occurring within the animal body, chiefly in the hollow organs or their passages. Called also stones, as in kidney stones (urolithiasis
) and gallstones
. See also hippomanes
mineralized deposits of calcium phosphate and carbonate, with organic matter, deposited on tooth surfaces. Found commonly in dogs and cats, sometimes in horses, rarely in sheep. May initiate caries and peridontal disease.
a concretion formed in the bronchi. See also bronchial
very small (4 to 5 mm) calculi in pancreatic ducts, rare and of no pathogenic importance.
concretions of calcium phosphates and carbonates in the prostatic ducts are rare and of no clinical significance.
white, hard, laminated concretions in the salivary duct; a sialolith. Occurs most commonly in horses.
a calculus lodged in the urethra causes obstruction of the urethra with a potential for causing rupture of the bladder or perforation of the urethra and leaking of urine into subcutaneous or retroperitoneal sites. See also urolith
a calculus in any part of the urinary tract. See urolithiasis
a urolith in the urinary bladder.
pertaining to the kidney. See also kidney
results from infected emboli and infarcts. Usually without localizing signs unless they are very large and palpable, or when they extend into the renal pelvis and cause pyelonephritis.
rare, incidental necropsy finding.
failure of the renal tissue to develop; unilateral agenesis causes compensatory hypertrophy in the single kidney; bilateral is fatal. Commonly accompanies genital tract malformation.
avian renal hemorrhage
sporadic unexplained disease of turkeys; sudden death is common.
is conducted usually with a biopsy needle introduced percutaneously through the flank. In food animals it is possible to fix the left kidney via a rectal manipulation, but the right kidney can be impossible to reach.
renal capsular cyst
see feline perirenal cysts.
commonest in old male dogs. They are very large, spread locally and metastasize widely.
renal clearance tests
laboratory tests that determine the ability of the kidney to remove certain substances from the blood. See also phenolsulfonphthalein
clearance test, inulin
renal cortical fissures
external fissures created by the lobar structure of the large ruminant kidney.
renal cortical hypoplasia
see renal dysplasia (below).
renal cortical necrosis
results from patchy or complete renal ischemia and is part of the terminal state of many diseases, e.g. severe metritis, grain overload in cattle, azoturia in horses.
renal countercurrent system renal cyst
incidental necropsy finding except for polycystic kidney
disease. See also feline perirenal cysts
inherited as an autosomal dominant trait in middle-aged German shepherd bitches with generalized nodular dermatofibrosis.
the application of the principles of dialysis for treatment of renal failure (below). See also hemodialysis
diverticuli of the renal pelvis.
reduced capacity to excrete metabolic products which accumulate systemically and are detectable clinicopathologically by renal function tests. The early stage of uremia.
small, misshapen kidneys at birth. May be caused by intrauterine infection of the fetus by virus, but numerous inherited renal dysplasias occur in dogs. They occur in several breeds and are manifested by signs of chronic renal insufficiency, e.g. polyuria, polydypsia, poor growth and weight gain, pale mucous membranes, and renal secondary osteodystrophia fibrosa, from an early age.
renal erythropoietic factor
inability of the kidney to maintain normal function. Impairment of kidney function affects most of the body's systems because of its important role in maintaining fluid balance, regulating the electrochemical composition of body fluids, providing constant protection against acid-base imbalance, and controlling blood pressure. See also kidney
renal function tests
include blood urea nitrogen and serum creatinine estimations, tests of concentrating ability, tests of ability to excrete test substances, e.g. phenolsulfonphthalein (PSP) clearance test. Of the urine tests, only specific gravity (SG) has any significance in terms of a function test but abnormalities of urine should lead to a function test being conducted.
a fissure on the medial border of the kidney through which arteries, veins and ureter enter.
renal hypophosphatemic rickets
inherited as an X-linked dominant trait in children and mice; characterized by hypophosphatemia and normocalcemia due to failure of phosphate resorption in renal tubules, and skeletal deformities. Called also vitamin-resistant rickets.
results from embolic or thrombotic occlusion of renal arteries or branches. Clinical signs are those of renal colic initially followed by toxemia if the infarct is infected.
see renal dysfunction (above).
a significant cause of renal dysfunction and cortical and medullary necrosis. Is usually part of a general state of shock, dehydration and severe toxemia.
a large mass of a kidney, comprising the tissue contributing to each pyramid; kidneys may be unilobar (unipyramidal), e.g. cats, dogs, small ruminants, horses, or multilobar (multipyramidal), e.g. cattle, pigs.
small masses of kidney tissue comprising a medullary ray and its associated nephrons.
renal medullary necrosis
necrosis of the renal medulla due to restriction of blood flow in medullary vessels, usually due to venous occlusion.
renal osteodystrophy, renal osteitis fibrosa, renal osteitis fibrosa cystica renal oxalosis
deposition of oxalate crystals in renal tubules of patients poisoned by dietary oxalate, usually in poisonous plants.
renal papillary necrosis
necrosis of renal papillae due usually to obstruction to urinary flow or poisoning or dehydration.
the chamber in the kidney into which the collecting tubules discharge urine and from which urine is voided into the ureter.
renal plasma flow
the effective rate of blood flow through the kidneys; the determining factor relative to the rate of glomerular filtration.
renal portal system
a system unique to birds; half to two thirds of the blood supply to the kidney comes from the hindlimbs via veins and terminates in peritubular capillaries where it is mixed with arteriolar blood coming from the glomeruli.
cessation of the excretory function of the kidney; oliguria.
renal spongiform encephalopathy
spongiform encephalopathy associated with renal failure.
renal vein thrombosis
commonly associated with renal amyloidosis in dogs.
Patient discussion about renal calculus
Q. Why do i get kidney stones? I am 38 and have had three stones pass so far. Is it the coffee, the meat, the stress, or the damned DNA?! My uncle is in his 50s and has passed over 30 stones!
A. Kidney stones are very common and even without the genetic or familial background people tend to get them. Of course, the more family predisposition you have, the higher are your chances of developing them, which is probably why you did. Also, a diet rich with dairy and calcium can cause your body to store excess calcium, that tends to calcify and create stones. Not drinking enough fluid is also one of the reasons.
Q. Would kidney stones affect a PSA reading? Would drinking lots of grapefruit juice affect a PSA reading? My husband's PSA reading jumped from a 4.2 to a 17 in @ 2 years' time. How can that be? This man takes all sorts of supplements and really watches his diet. He also takes good care of his body, and does NOT look or act 68.
A. You should get your parathyroid gland checked out. Your calcium level might be causing the kidney stones.
Q. How can i overcome kidney ache? in the morning it appears.after wake up.
A. First of all, it is important to distinguish kidney ache from lower back ache. If you have ever suffered from kidney problems or infections, it might be advisable to see a doctor, and rule out an infection. However, if you are otherwise healthy, and have been experiencing back pain after you wake up, it is very much possible your pain is not from the kidneys, but from the muscles of your back. In this case, some exercise on a daily basis to help strengthen your lower back can very much ease the pain you're experiencing. More discussions about renal calculus