RENAISSANCE

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RENAISSANCE

Rheumatology A clinical trial–Tandomized Enbrel®/etanercept North American Strategy to Study Antagonism of Cytokines. See Etanercept.
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Scholars have long commented on the importance of the Irish Renaissance of the late nineteenth and early twentieth century as a model for African American artists and intellectuals theorizing what a "New Negro" political and cultural "renaissance" might be during the 1920s.
It is clear from the statements of many of the leading writers and intellectuals of the Harlem Renaissance that they were inspired by the works, figures, institutions, discussions, and arguments of the Irish Renaissance.
As the study stands, the account of the Harlem Renaissance, and perhaps the Irish Renaissance (though I am less familiar with its secondary literature), is essentially a retelling of accounts by other scholars that have appeared elsewhere at greater length and in greater depth.
In a study that appeared in 1960, dealing with the historical figure of Charles V as Spain's emperor and as a major player in the political life of Europe in the sixteenth century, Maravall became the first Spanish historian to join the ongoing discussion concerning the nature of the Renaissance in Europe.
Both in scope and content, this study represented a departure from the traditional way in which the Renaissance had been described in Spanish historiography.
The novelty of his formulation can be partly explained by his acquaintance with some of the latest research by European and American scholars in the field of Renaissance studies, a remarkable endeavor considering the isolation in which Spanish historians were working during the decades of the 1940s and '50s.
The period under review is relatively short, spanning approximately one hundred fifty years, that is, from the second half of the last century, when the first interpretations of the Renaissance were formulated, to the present.
Interest in the Renaissance as a cultural rebirth waned during the first part of the nineteenth century when the predominant romantic interpretations of Spanish literature, generally written outside of Spain, stressed the originality, purity and spontaneity of the national creative genius as this manifested itself in the Middle Ages.
In the years during which Michelet was preparing the seventh volume of his monumental history of France dedicated entirely to the Renaissance period, a Spanish historian, Jose Amador de los Rios, was also working on a massive history of Spain.
The struggle over the meaning of the Renaissance occupied scholars over a number of decades, but one can identify a particularly self-conscious attempt by American scholars to raise these issues in the 1940s and 1950s.
It was largely within the context of this American reformulation of the debate on the Renaissance that Panofsky published his famous Kenyon Review essay of 1944, "Renaissance and Renascences,"(13) originally intended as a contribution to the Renaissance symposium in the Journal of the History of Ideas.
It is important to recognize the close affinity of Panofsky's methodological polemics and his apology for the Renaissance, for ultimately the art historical methodology of the iconologist and the cultural ideals represented by the Renaissance were closely connected in his mind.