Abbreviations: AA = amplitude of accommodation, AE = accommodative excess, AI = accommodative insufficiency, AS/R = accommodative stimulus/response, CISS = Convergence Insufficiency Symptom Survey, cpm = cycles per minute, D = diopter, DoD = Department of Defense, FEF = frontal eye field, MRI = magnetic resonance imaging, mTBI = mild traumatic brain injury, NPA = near point of accommodation, NRA = negative relative accommodation
, OD = right eye, OMT = oculomotor training, OS = left eye, P = placebo, pons = pontis, PRA = positive relative accommodation
, SEM = standard error of mean, SD = standard deviation, SS = steady-state, SUNY = State University of New York, TBI = traumatic brain injury, VSAT = Visual Search and Attention Test.
This accommodative insufficiency was based on the following diagnostic criteria: the patient was under 35 years of age and complained of blur at near that was reduced with the addition of plus lenses; furthermore, the insufficiency was confirmed with the measurement of a reduced accommodative amplitude and/or positive relative accommodation (PRA) .
Static parameters included push-up and minus-lens accommodative amplitude, relative accommodative ranges (PRA/negative relative accommodation [NRA]), accommodative stimulus/response (AS/R) function, AC/A ratio, near heterophoria, and tonic accommodation (see Appendix for ophthalmic glossary, available online only).