Relapsing fever can be acquired by travelers and brought back to regions where the disease is not epidemic (10,11) after eco-challenges or in association with military training or activities such as camping or caving, provided susceptible hosts and natural disease ecologic cycles coincide (8,9).
Borrelia duttonii, the cause of tickborne relapsing fever, is endemic to several countries in East Africa, such as Tanzania.
Reports of tickborne relapsing fever elsewhere appear to be more sporadic or involve limited clusters of infection, which typically are associated with events that bring susceptible human hosts into close proximity with the tick vectors and their usual wildlife reservoirs (8,9).
Many now believe that louseborne relapsing fever can be assigned to the history books; however, considerable disease-endemic foci of infection remain in areas of Ethiopia, which spill into neighboring countries such as Sudan (18).
that greatly resemble relapsing fever borreliae with natural transmission through hard tick (ixodid) vectors means that these ticks may playa role in transmission.
Studies of rodents in California have shown a new potential borrelial species, tentatively named "Borrelia davisii," which appears distinct from both the Lyme-associated and relapsing fever groups of spirochetes.
The possibility that the agents of louseborne epidemic relapsing fever (B.
Comparison of the Bdr putative [ILLEGIBLE TEXT] sequences from the Lyme disease spirochetes with those from the relapsing fever indicates that, while there is conservation in physical properties, there is essential of primary sequence.
Antigenic variation of a relapsing fever Borrelia species.
Cloning and molecular characterization of a [ILLEGIBLE TEXT] plasmid-carried, repeat motif-containing gene from Borrelia turicatae, a [ILLEGIBLE TEXT] relapsing fever.
Conversion of circular plasmid in the relapsing fever agent Borrelia hermsii.
To cultivate the relapsing fever borreliae and [ILLEGIBLE TEXT] species, the complete BSK-H media were supplemented with additional rabbit [ILLEGIBLE TEXT] final concentration of 12% (vol/vol).