Evidently, the ancient refugium
for the European snow vole in the Kopet Dagh and the Binaloud Mts.
tessellata had sufficient time to disperse into the Swat Valley and more eastern valleys from a potential glacial refugium
in the southern Turanian lowlands (far northern Afghanistan and adjacent areas).
The Columbia River Valley has recently been proposed as a Pleistocene refugium
for terrestrial organisms (Steele and Storfer 2006), and this may be the case for P.
Thirdly, the southern geographic location of the Anatolian refugium
requires paying special attention to its role in the matter of rear-edge concept.
Paleoclimatic speculations suggested by new data on the location of the spruce refugium
in Alaska during the last glaciation.
The assemblage of endemic taxa from these islands, which include mammals (Foster 1965; Cowan 1989), birds (Foster 1965; Cowan 1989), fish (Moodie and Reimchen 1973), beetles (Kavanaugh 1992), angiosperms (Calder and Taylor 1968), and bryophytes (Schofield 1989), have cumulatively provided support for a Pleistocene glacial refugium
on or near these islands (summary in Scudder and Gessler 1989).
With wide-ranging, deep-ocean species, the refugium
would have to be extremely large, and consequently it would be difficult to manage and enforce, and the political pressure to allow harvest would be too great.
The test with a refugium
had a much higher index value (139) than that of the one without (21).
2006: A northern glacial refugium
for bank voles (Clethrionomys glareolus).
Temperatures of one snake in a refugium
during February was 5.
Only one documented instance of a potential plant refugium
maintained by animals is known: that of the termite created soils around Mulga (Acacia aneura) logs (Tongway et at, 1989).
After more than 30 years of carefully monitoring the wild population, biologists are scrambling to establish a refugium
for this small fish.