Conversely, the commercial softwood species, balsam fir and red spruce
, were minimal in the youngest age classes, but accounted for a large proportion of the dominant stems (21% each) in the 16-20 year class.
Prior to the 19th Century, there were over 500,000 acres (200,000 hectares) of high elevation red spruce
forests in West Virginia.
After microscopic observation of anatomical characteristics, 70 of these samples were determined to be red spruce
The cover photo on the October, 1999 issue of BioScience was of a dead red spruce
tree on the top of Vermont's Mt.
papyrifera), American beech, aspen, ash, balsam fir, red spruce
, and white pine (Pinus strobus).
Other names for this famous West Coast tree include: Douglas spruce, fir, yellow fir, red pine, red spruce
, red fir, oregon pine, and Douglastree.
Bowden and his colleagues at Yale University reported a similar finding with red spruce
seedlings in the March CANADIAN JOURNAL OF FOREST RESEARCH.
I believe this seedling is a red spruce
or possibly a black spruce.
Additionally, higher summer temperatures and increased pollution from road traffic will likely contribute to greater ground-level ozone formation with the effect of reducing forest productivity and harming commercial tree species like red spruce
and white pine.
For the next four years, the researchers, working first in laboratory greenhouses, will expose red spruce
and balsam fir seedlings growing in their native soild to a simulated acid mist that contains nitrates.
Before humans, Canaan Valley had red spruce
and lots of it, mixed with balsam fir and hardwoods.
Encompassing tens of thousands of acres of National Forest land, the Dolly Sods plateau comprises miles of high-elevation heath barrens, where hip-high rhododendron, azaleas, and blueberry bushes are interspersed with red spruce
trees stunted by the cold, windswept conditions.