The remaining two hypotheses address the issue of the validity of cognitive theories of empowerment and LH and the reciprocality
of empowerment and LH, and also address comparisons of the results obtained across methods.
In the context of this study, motivation was considered a personal factor in the triadic reciprocality model, and was operationalized by two constructs put forward by Pintrich and Zusho (2007): students' expectancy for success in a course (expectancy) and students' values and goals associated with a course (values/goals).
In the context of the triadic reciprocality model (Bandura, 1986), the environmental factor of professor/student rapport should influence students' personal factors.
According to Bandura's (1986) idea of triadic reciprocality
, the factors of effective instruction, operationalized as learning activities used, cognitive levels reached, and immediacy behaviors used, should impact students' cognitive processing and their use of 21st century skills.
Social learning theory, then, "favors a conception of interaction based on tria dic reciprocality, and suggests that behavior, cognitive and other personal factors, and environmental influences all operate as interlocking determinants that affect each other bidirectionally" (Bandura, 2004, pg.
While specific reinforcers for problem behavior vary widely, this view is consistent with Bandura's concept of "triadic reciprocality," and suggests a theoretical link between childhood experiences and theoretical or environmental family factors, and the various positive and negative contingencies of reinforcement that maintain criminal behavior.
Bandura's triadic reciprocality model (Figure 1) illustrates the bidirectional nature of the interacting determinants.
The change in perception also aligns with Bandura's (1986) triadic reciprocality model, as preservice teachers' perceptions of quality teaching were shaped by environmental factors, such as pedagogical instruction.
Rather, human functioning is explained in terms of a model of triadic reciprocality
in which behavior, cognitive and other personal factors, and environmental events all operate as interacting determinants of each other.
a) personal factors in the form of cognition, affect, and biological events, (b) behavior, and (c) environmental influences create interactions that result in a triadic reciprocality
This study was further defined with Bandura's (1986, 1997) social cognitive theory and his concept of triadic reciprocality