# ratio

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## ratio

[ra´she-o] (*L.*)

an expression of the quantity of one substance or entity in relation to that of another; the relationship between two quantities expressed as the quotient of one divided by the other.

**A/D ratio**adult versus developmental toxicity ratio; the ratio between the toxic effects of a substance on adults (humans or animals, especially pregnant females) and such effects on developing embryos or fetuses.

**A-G ratio**(

**albumin-globulin ratio**) the ratio of albumin to globulin in blood serum, plasma, cerebrospinal fluid, or urine.

**arm ratio**a figure expressing the relation of the length of the longer arm of a mitotic chromosome to that of the shorter arm.

**benefit-risk ratio**a determination of the potential of a research study for positive effects on patients compared to the risks of doing harm.

**cardiothoracic ratio**on a chest radiograph, the ratio of the transverse diameter of the heart to the internal diameter of the chest at its widest point just above the dome of the diaphragm.

**grid ratio**a ratio comparing the height of lead lines in an x-ray grid to the distance between the lead strips.

**inspiratory-expiratory ratio**the ratio of the inspiratory time to the expiratory time during the breathing cycle. Normally, expiratory time will be longer than inspiratory time; if the inspiratory time is longer than the expiratory time, gas trapping may result.

**lecithin/sphingomyelin ratio**see lecithin-sphingomyelin ratio.

**risk ratio**relative risk.

**sex ratio**the proportion of one sex to the other; by tradition the number of males in a population to the number of females, usually stated as the number of males per 100 females.

**signal-to-noise ratio**the ratio between the amplitude of a signal being measured and that of the noise.

**urea excretion ratio**the ratio of the amount of urea in the urine excreted in one hour to the amount in 100 ml of blood. The normal ratio is 50.

**zeta sedimentation ratio**(ZSR) a measurement comparable to the erythrocyte sedimentation rate, except that it is unaffected by anemia. The packed-cell volume (zetacrit) of a blood specimens is calculated by centrifuging the specimen in a Zetafuge, a specially designed instrument that produces controlled cycles of compaction and dispersion and allows rouleaux to form and sediment rapidly. The zetacrit divided into the true hematocrit gives the zeta sedimentation ratio.

## ra·ti·o

(rā'shē-ō),An expression of the relation of one quantity to another (for example, of a proportion or rate).

See also: index (2), quotient.

See also: index (2), quotient.

[L.

*ratio*(*ration-*) a reckoning, reason, fr.*reor,*pp.*ratus,*to reckon, compute]## ratio

/ra·tio/ (ra´she-o) [L.] an expression of the quantity of one substance or entity in relation to that of another; the relationship between two quantities expressed as the quotient of one divided by the other.**A-G ratio**,

**albumin-globulin ratio**the ratio of albumin to globulin in blood serum, plasma, or urine in various renal diseases.

**cardiothoracic ratio**on a radiograph, the ratio of the transverse diameter of the heart to the internal diameter of the chest at its widest point just above the dome of the diaphragm.

**lecithin/sphingomyelin ratio**,

**L/S ratio**the ratio of lecithin to sphingomyelin concentration in the amniotic fluid, used to predict the degree of pulmonary maturity of the fetus and thus the risk of respiratory distress syndrome (RDS) if the fetus is delivered prematurely.

**sex ratio**the proportion of one sex to another, traditionally the number of males in a population per number of females.

**ventilation-perfusion ratio**the ratio of oxygen received in the pulmonary alveoli to the flow of blood through the alveolar capillaries.

## ratio

[rā′shō]

Etymology: L, a reckoning

the relationship of one quantity to one or more other quantities, expressed as a proportion of one to the others and written either as a fraction (8/3) or linearly (8:3).

## ratio

Vox populi The value obtained by dividing one quantity by another; a measure of association calculated by dividing one amount by another. See Abortion ratio, A/G ratio, A/P ratio, AT/GC ratio, Benefits-to-cost ratio, Branching ratio, Case-to-infection ratio, Case-fatality ratio, CD4/CD8 ratio, Cross-match/transfusion ratio, Death-to-case ratio, Duty ratio, Effective reproductive ratio, Exposure odds ratio, Flexor/extensor ratio, G:C ratio, HDL/LDL ratio, Helper:Suppressor ratio, HERT ratio, International Normalized ratio, Lecithin/sphingomyelin ratio, Likelihood ratio, Magnetization transfer ratio, Maternal mortality ratio, Medical loss ratio, Myeloid:Erythroid ratio, Nuclear:cytoplasmic ratio, Odds ratio, Packing ratio, Potency ratio, Prevalence ratio, Proportionate mortality ratio, Rate ratio, Signal-to-noise ratio, Reproduction ratio, Risk ratio, Sex ratio, Solubility ratio, Standardized mortality ratio, Thyroid hormone binding ratio, Urea reduction ratio, Waist-to-hip ratio.## ra·ti·o

(rā'shē-ō)An expression of the relation of one quantity to another (e.g., of a proportion or rate).

See also: index (2) , quotient

See also: index (2) , quotient

[L.

*ratio*(*ration-*) a reckoning, reason, fr.*reor,*pp.*ratus,*to reckon, compute]## ratio

index; calculated comparison of two events/factors, i.e.*a/b*; ratio of <1 indicates

*b>a*; ratio of >1 indicates

*b<a*; where there is no difference, ratio = 1

*ankle-brachial ratio**see*ankle-brachial index*heart rate ratio**see*manoeuvre, Valsalva's

## ra·ti·o

(rā'shē-ō)Expression of relation of one quantity to another (e.g., of a proportion or rate).

[L.

*ratio*(*ration-*) a reckoning, reason, fr.*reor,*pp.*ratus,*to reckon, compute]## ratio,

*n*proportion; comparison.

**ratio, A:G**,

*n*the ratio of the protein albumin to globulin in the blood serum. On the basis of differential solubility with neutral salt solution, the normal values are 3.5 to 5 Gm% for albumin and 2.5 to 4 Gm% for globulin.

**ratio, clinical crown: clinical root**,

*n*the proportion of the length of the portion of the tooth lying coronal to the epithelial attachment to the length of the portion of the root lying apical to the epithelial attachment. Radiographically the clinical crown is the portion of the tooth coronal to the alveolar crest; the clinical root is the part of the root apical to the alveolar crest. The radiographic crown:root ratio is useful in the evaluation and prognosis of periodontal disease.

**ratio, crown-implant**,

*n*the proportional relationship between the height of the crown to the length of the implant that is surrounded by bone; the height of the crown is described as the length from the topmost point of the artificial crown to the point where the implant comes into contact with the bone.

**ratio, grid**,

*n*the relation of the height of the lead strips to the width of the nonopaque material between them. Common grid ratios are 2:8, 2:12, and 2:16.

**ratio, water:powder**,

*n*relative amounts of water and powder (usually gypsum products) in a mixture.

## ratio

[L.] an expression of the quantity of one substance or entity in relation to that of another; the relationship between two quantities expressed as the quotient of one divided by the other. It differs from a proportion in that the numerator is not included in the denominator. Thus x/(x + y) is a proportion, x:y is a ratio.

**A-G ratio**

albumin-globulin ratio.

**area-incidence ratio**

the number of new cases of a specific disease in a population during a specified time period, divided by the geographic area size in which the observations are made, multiplied by the time elapsed, e.g. cases per hectare per month.

**arm ratio**

a figure expressing the relation of the length of the longer arm of a mitotic chromosome to that of the shorter arm.

**A/S ratio**

the diameter of the ascending aorta divided by the diameter of the aorta at the sinus of Valsalva; less than 1 in a normal dog. In subaortic stenosis it becomes greater than 1.

**cardiothoracic ratio**

the ratio of the transverse diameter of the heart to the internal diameter of the chest at its widest point just anterior to the dome of the diaphragm.

**cross ratio**

see odds ratio.

**fetal death ratio**

the number of fetal deaths divided by the number of live births.

**gain ratio**

individual animal's gain/average gain in group × 100.

**lecithin-sphingomyelin ratio**

the ratio of lecithin to sphingomyelin in amniotic fluid. See also lecithin, sphingomyelin.

**odds ratio**

see odds ratio.

**rates ratio**

the ratio between two rates. See odds ratio and relative risk ratio (below).

**relative risk ratio**

the ratio between the rate (of mortality or some such parameter) in one group of animals and the rate in another group, used as a standard and the comparison expressed as a ratio. See also relative risk.

**sex ratio**

the number of males in a population per number of females, usually stated as the number of males per 100 females.

**S/P ratio**

secondary-to-primary ratio. An indicator of fleece type in sheep, the greater the ratio the finer the fleece. Coarse-wool sheep have ratios of 3:1 to 4:1; merinos have a ratio of 20:1.

**stillbirth ratio**

the ratio of stillbirths to total births in the population.

**urea excretion ratio**

the ratio of the amount of urea in the urine excreted in one hour to the amount in 100 ml of blood. The normal ratio is 50.

## Patient discussion about ratio

**Q. Q. I want to know about urine protein creatine ratio in diagnosing nephrotic syndrome. ** Please explain interms of unit such as mg/mg or mmol/mg. Normal range, nephrotic range with good referrence.

**A.**Nephrotic syndrome is defines as a damage to the kidneys, in which there is a leak of large amounts of protein (over 3.5 grams of protein / 24 hours urine output) from the blood to the urine. Protein loss causes low protein count in the blood (hypoalbuminemia) and edemas (excess fluid in the interstitial cavity which is between the cells, causes leg swelling most often, and also in the adbomen and around the eyes).