rape-trauma syndrome

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sexual assault or abuse; sexual intercourse (vaginal or anal penetration) against the will and without the consent of the individual. The crime of rape continues to occur at an alarming rate. Many cases are not reported by victims because of feelings of shame, guilt, embarrassment, or fear. Most rape victims are girls or women, although rape or sexual assault can also occur between men (homosexual rape). 

Immediately after the crime of rape has occurred, victims should be calmed as much as possible and assured that they are safe. Any bleeding wounds, fractures, or other existing injuries should be treated. They should be encouraged to obtain treatment as soon as possible and not to change clothes, bathe, douche, or urinate because that could destroy legal evidence needed to arrest and convict the attacker.

Rape is a physical and psychological emergency, and the victim must be treated with compassion as well as professional competence. The American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists has provided guidelines for the physical care of a rape victim, identifying a twofold purpose for the physical examination: (1) to protect the victim against disease, pregnancy, and psychological trauma, and (2) to aid in the collection of legal evidence that could be used later in court.

Many hospitals have on call a rape counselor who can stay with the victim through emergency treatment and provide guidance and referral to a follow-up program of care. Recovery from rape is a difficult task. Some victims may appear to return to normal rather quickly, when in fact they are using temporary psychological mechanisms such as denial, suppression, and rationalization. Crisis intervention through all phases of the recovery period is a necessary component of the total care of a rape victim. The main purposes of follow-up are to keep channels of communication open to victims, assess their coping skills, to offer support and encouragement in efforts to resume life, and to provide assistance and referral if necessary. Rape is a crime of violence in which the sexual act is secondary to the brutality of the attack.

The American College of Emergency Physicians has published a consensus document called Evaluation and Management of the Sexually Assaulted or Abused Patient. It is available from ACEP Sales and Service, P.O. Box 619911, Dallas TX 75261-9911 or on their web site at http://www.acep.org. They can also be reached by telephone at 1-800-798-1822, ext. 6. A review of informative materials for women who have been raped or sexually assaulted, and practice guidelines for care, is available from the National Violence Against Women Prevention Research Center, whose web site is http://www.vawprevention.org.
acquaintance rape (date rape) rape by someone known to the victim.
rape-trauma syndrome
1. a group of symptoms caused by, or that are responses to, rape.
2. a nursing diagnosis approved by the North American Nursing Diagnosis Association, defined as a sustained maladaptative response to a forced, violent sexual penetration against the victim's will and consent. It includes an acute phase of disorganization of the victim's lifestyle, followed by a long-term phase of reorganization of lifestyle. Characteristics in the acute phase may include emotional reactions such as anger, humiliation, revenge, and self-blame, and multiple physical symptoms. In the long-term phase the victim must cope with changes in lifestyle that could include moving to another residence, changing telephone number, dealing with recurrent nightmares and phobias, and seeking support from individuals and groups.

There may also be either a compound reaction or a silent reaction. The nursing diagnosis rape trauma syndrome: compound reaction is identified as an acute stress reaction to a rape or attempted rape, experienced along with other major stressors that can include reactivation of symptoms of a previous condition. The victim suffers from the emotional and physiological manifestations listed above and may also resort to reliance on drugs or alcohol and experience reactivated symptoms of preexisting physical or psychiatric illnesses. The nursing diagnosis rape trauma syndrome: silent reaction is identified as a complex stress reaction to a rape in which an individual is unable to describe or discuss the rape. Characteristics can include sudden changes in relationships with men and in sexual behavior, increasing anxiety during interview, silence about the rape incident, and sudden onset of phobic reactions.

rape-trauma syndrome

Sustained maladaptive response to a forced, violent sexual penetration against the victim's will and consent. rape;

Like other posttraumatic stress disorders, this condition initially causes an acute phase of disorganization and involves a long-term reorganization of lifestyle. Sequelae may include marked changes in lifestyle and a variety of phobias.

Acute phase: Profound emotional responses mark the acute phase (i.e., fear, shame, and feelings of humiliation; self-blame and self-degradation; and anger and desire for revenge). Most commonly, rape victims exhibit crying, trembling, talkativeness, statements of disbelief, and emotional shock. Some may exhibit overt signs of hostility, which reflect their anger and feelings of powerlessness. Later, patient complaints of sleep pattern disturbances, gastrointestinal irritability, and genitourinary discomforts reflect physical responses to emotional trauma. Some victims may appear quiet, dispassionate, and smiling; however, these behaviors should not be misinterpreted as indicating a lack of concern; rather, they may represent an avoidance reaction.

Long-term phase: Many rape victims experience one or more of the following: nightmares; chronic suspicion, inability to trust, and altered interpersonal relationships; anxiety, aversion to men, and avoidance of sex; depression; and phobias. Paradoxically, patients express feelings of guilt and shame because they feel that either they invited the attack, should have prevented the episode, or that they deserved being punished.

Patient care

The nurse exhibits empathy and understanding and ensures privacy and a quiet supportive environment. The patient is encouraged to verbalize feelings, fears, and concerns. Positive self-perception and self-esteem are promoted and supported. The nurse emphasizes that rape usually is an expression of the rapist's overwhelming feelings of psychosocial impotence and anger and that the act conveys a sense of power over others; the woman was a victim of the rapist's inability to contain a violent personal rage that is not related to her or to sex. The patient is referred to community resources (support groups) and for psychological counseling. Most patients prefer to have a counselor of the same sex.

References in classic literature ?
It has never been my way to scold or chide thee, yet always hath my heart ached for each crime laid at the door of Norman of Torn.
cried the youth, "pray help me now and scold me afterwards.
Everybody scolds us, everybody gives us advice, everybody warns us.
On the contrary, when a set of grave men and philosophers are disputing; when wisdom herself may in a manner be considered as present, and administering arguments to the disputants; should a tumult arise among the mob, or should one scold, who is herself equal in noise to a mighty mob, appear among the said philosophers; their disputes cease in a moment, wisdom no longer performs her ministerial office, and the attention of every one is immediately attracted by the scold alone.
And as soon as an important moment of life comes, like the children when they are cold and hungry, I turn to Him, and even less than the children when their mother scolds them for their childish mischief, do I feel that my childish efforts at wanton madness are reckoned against me.
Altogether, this time of trouble was rather a Saturnalian time to Kezia; she could scold her betters with unreproved freedom.
Tulliver went submissively downstairs; to be ordered about by a servant was the last remnant of her household dignities,--she would soon have no servant to scold her.
For example, post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and rape-trauma syndrome (RTS) are generally accepted syndromes in the field of medicine.
In this note I will analyze evidence from two syndromes: post-traumatic stress disorder and rape-trauma syndrome.
Rape-trauma syndrome includes many counterintuitive victim behaviors.
The DSM does not mention rape-trauma syndrome or other common syndromes such as battered person syndrome or child abuse syndrome, but it does include sexual assault as a traumatic event that can lead to post-traumatic stress disorder.