127) The court stated, "[I]f the presence of rape trauma syndrome
is detectable and reliable as evidence that a forcible assault did take place, it is relevant when a defendant argues the victim consented to sexual intercourse.
39) Similarly, Rape Trauma Syndrome
evidence is also used by prosecutors to negate a defense of consent.
The acute stage of rape trauma syndrome
is a crisis period that occurs immediately after the attack and lasts for about two or three weeks.
92) Whether characterized as rape trauma syndrome
, post-traumatic stress disorder, or an aggregate of minor psychological injuries, the mental and emotional harm resulting from sexual assault can be short-term, long-term, or permanent.
One of the symptoms of the rape trauma syndrome
is avoidance of the place or circumstance in which the event occurred.
Training programmes taught officers about the Rape Trauma Syndrome
, that false complaints of rape were rare, delays in reporting common, and that complainants were to be treated with sympathy and respect (Blair 1985: ch.
The catastrophic psychological, medical, and criminological effects of rape trauma syndrome
on victims will continue to reverberate through U.
Related psychological traumas include Rape Trauma Syndrome
, Battered Woman Syndrome, and dissociative disorders.
Rape and childhood sexual assault are associated with numerous short-term and long-term effects on psychosocial and physical health including depression, anxiety, interpersonal problems, self-destructive behaviors,[1-5] sexually transmitted diseases,[6,7] chronic pelvic pain[8,9] sexual dysfunction,[10-12] post-traumatic stress disorder, rape trauma syndrome
, somatization,[1-3,14-16] and a high rate of Use of medical and mental health services.
67, 90 (2000) (footnotes omitted) (citing Ann Wolbert Burgess & Lynda Lytle Holmstrom, Rape Trauma Syndrome
, in FORCIBLE RAPE: THE CRIME, THE VICTIM, AND THE OFFENDER 315, 319-20 (Duncan Chappell et al.
Upon his third release in 1984, he finally was able to receive counseling for rape trauma syndrome