radiation pneumonitis


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pneumonitis

 [noo″mo-ni´tis]
inflammation of the lung; see also pneumonia.
hypersensitivity pneumonitis a respiratory hypersensitivity reaction to repeated inhalation of organic particles, usually in an occupational setting, with onset a few hours after exposure to the allergen. Many different substances are potential causes of the condition; see bagassosis, farmer's lung, and pigeon breeder's lung. Characteristics include fever, fatigue, chills, unproductive cough, tachycardia, and tachypnea; in the chronic form there is interstitial fibrosis with collagenous thickening of the alveolar septa. Called also extrinsic allergic alveolitis.
radiation pneumonitis lung inflammation resulting from radiation exposure, usually radiation therapy, with coughing, dyspnea, and alveolar infiltration of secretions, leading to mild to severe or even fatal fibrosis 6 to 9 months after the exposure.

ra·di·a·tion pneu·mo·ni·tis

the interstitial pneumonia and fibrosis that follow pulmonary irradiation at radiotherapeutic doses.

radiation pneumonitis

Irradiation pneumonitis Pulmonology A condition caused by exposure of lung tissue to radiation, a common complication of RT to mediastinal and thoracic tumors–eg, NHLs, Hodgkin's disease, breast and esophageal CAs; frequency of RP reflects dose and amount of tissue exposed to radiation Incidence RP occurs in 65% of irradiated lung fields; clinical pneumonitis occurs in 6%, 2% die from RP. See Radiation fibrosis.
References in periodicals archive ?
Radiation pneumonitis has been reported to occur in from 1 to 34% of patients receiving chest radiation, depending on diagnostic criteria used, with radiographic changes being more common than actual symptoms.
Cytokine release and direct radiation damage to type II pneumocytes have been implicated as the initial events in radiation pneumonitis.
While radiation pneumonitis is often thought to affect only the lung within the zone of irradiation, pathologic changes outside the zone of irradiation, including the contralateral lung, are well described.
2) However, corticosteroids may not influence survival, even in patients who develop severe radiation pneumonitis.
While radiation pneumonitis is the most likely diagnosis in this patient, we also entertained other possible diagnoses.

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