2 Delimitation of racism from ethnocentrism and xenophobia
These terms are often used in a confusing way as synonyms for racism.
Regarding the content, racism is more than ethnocentrism or xenophobia, because it refers not only to feelings, attitudes and behavior, but also to an ideology, in the sense of a--often elaborated--worldview, that can become a doctrine.
While the emergence of racism can be dated, this is not possible with xenophobia (Memmi, 1972: 915).
In the following section are presented various aspects and explanations regarding racism in present.
However, as Fredrickson (2011: 13) notes, racism is not a phenomenon of the past, because it does not need this state and legal support, nor is it an ideology of biological differentiation and inequality.
The idea of "old" racism (as juxtaposed against the idea of "new" racism) can be best described as "a belief that race is the primary determinant of traits and capacities and that racial difference produce an inherent superiority of a particular race.
This research, however, proposes that the key to assessing racism in contemporary Newfoundland and Labrador society is to apply Teun van Dijk's "new (or subtle)" racism.
29) Thus the idea of a "new" racism can potentially provide important insights regarding the existence and influence of latent or subtle racism on adolescent refugees living in a small white urban centre.
Indeed, such contemporary racism is, as Barker argues, masked in racially neutral language and rearticulated to make it more acceptable in public discourse.
Philomena Essed also argues that the micro forms of racism have their origin in the macro forms; in other words, it is the inherent structural inequalities and historical processes that have led to the micro forms of racism.
It is important to recognize that everyday racism cannot simply be reduced to a singular event.