racemose aneurysm


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aneurysm

 [an´u-rizm]
a sac formed by the localized dilatation of the wall of an artery, a vein, or the heart.
 Classification of aneurysms. All three tunica layers are involved in true aneurysms (fusiform and saccular). In false aneurysms, blood escapes between tunica layers and they separate. If the separation continues, a clot may form, resulting in a dissecting aneurysm. From Copstead and Banasik, 2000.
adj., adj aneurys´mal. The chief signs of an arterial aneurysm are the formation of a pulsating tumor, and often a bruit (aneurysmal bruit) heard over the swelling. Sometimes there are symptoms from pressure on contiguous parts.

The most common site for an arterial aneurysm is the abdominal aorta. A true aneurysm results from formation of a sac by the arterial wall with at least one unbroken layer. It is most often associated with atherosclerosis. A false aneurysm usually is caused by trauma. In this case, the wall of the blood vessel is ruptured and blood escapes into surrounding tissues and forms a clot. Because of pressure within the clot arising from the heart's contractions, the clot often pulsates against the examiner's hand as does a true aneurysm.

Although atherosclerosis is responsible for most arterial aneurysms, any injury to the middle or muscular layer of the arterial wall (tunica media) can predispose the vessel to stretching of the inner and outer layers of the artery and the formation of a sac. Other diseases that can lead to an aneurysm include syphilis, cystic medionecrosis, certain nonspecific inflammations, and congenital defects in the artery.

It is possible for a person to be unaware of a small aneurysm for years. About 80 per cent of all abdominal aneurysms are palpable and may be noticed on a routine physical examination. One should be particularly alert to the possibility of an aneurysm in persons with a history of cardiovascular disease, hypertension, or peripheral vascular disease.

Aneurysms tend to increase in size, presenting a problem of increasing pressure against adjacent tissues and organs and a danger of rupture. When an aneurysm ruptures, a critical situation ensues. The patient with a ruptured aortic aneurysm exhibits severe pain and blood loss, leading to shock. A ruptured cerebral aneurysm produces neurologic symptoms and can resemble the clinical picture of stroke syndrome.

Treatment of aneurysm depends on the vessel involved, size of the aneurysm, and general health status of the patient.
arteriosclerotic aneurysm an aneurysm arising in a large artery, most commonly the abdominal aorta, as a result of weakening of the wall in severe atherosclerosis; called also atherosclerotic aneurysm.
arteriovenous aneurysm an abnormal communication between an artery and a vein in which the blood flows directly into a neighboring vein or is carried into the vein by a connecting sac.
atherosclerotic aneurysm arteriosclerotic aneurysm.
bacterial aneurysm an infected aneurysm caused by bacteria.
berry aneurysm (brain aneurysm) a small saccular aneurysm of a cerebral artery, usually at the junction of vessels in the circle of Willis; such aneurysms frequently rupture, causing subarachnoid hemorrhage. Called also cerebral aneurysm.
cardiac aneurysm thinning and dilatation of a portion of the wall of the left ventricle, usually a consequence of myocardial infarction.
cerebral aneurysm berry aneurysm.
cirsoid aneurysm dilatation and tortuous lengthening of part of an artery; called also racemose aneurysm.
compound aneurysm one in which some of the layers of the wall of the vessel are ruptured and some merely dilated; called also mixed aneurysm.
dissecting aneurysm one resulting from hemorrhage that causes lengthwise splitting of the arterial wall, producing a tear in the inner wall (intima) and establishing communication with the lumen of the vessel. It usually affects the thoracic aorta (see aortic dissection) but can also occur in other large arteries. See illustration.
false aneurysm
one in which the entire wall is injured and the blood is contained by the surrounding tissues, with eventual formation of a sac communicating with the artery (or heart). See illustration.
fusiform aneurysm a spindle-shaped aneurysm; see illustration.
infected aneurysm one produced by growth of microorganisms (bacteria or fungi) in the vessel wall, or infection arising within a preexisting arteriosclerotic aneurysm.
mixed aneurysm compound aneurysm.
mycotic aneurysm an infected aneurysm caused by fungi.
racemose aneurysm cirsoid aneurysm.
saccular aneurysm (sacculated aneurysm) a saclike aneurysm; see illustration.
spurious aneurysm
false aneurysm (def. 1).
varicose aneurysm one formed by rupture of an aneurysm into a vein.

cir·soid an·eu·rysm

dilation of a group of blood vessels owing to congenital malformation with arteriovenous shunting.

racemose aneurysm

a pronounced dilation of lengthened and tortuous blood vessels, which may form a tumor. Also called cirsoid aneurysm.

cir·soid an·eur·ysm

(sir'soyd an'yūr-izm)
Dilation of a group of blood vessels owing to congenital malformation with arteriovenous shunting.
Synonym(s): racemose aneurysm.

aneurysm

, aneurism (an'yu-rizm) [Gr. aneurysma, a widening]
Localized abnormal dilatation of a blood vessel, usually an artery, due to a congenital defect or weakness in the wall of the vessel. As aneurysms dilate, they become more and more vulnerable to rupture. aneurysmal (an?yu-riz'mal), adjective

Etiology

As people age, the combined effects of high blood pressure and atherosclerotic weakening of arteries produce most aneurysms in the aorta. Congenital malformations of arteries in the circle of Willis are relatively common causes of aneurysms in the brain. Aneurysms in the chest or peripheral arteries are sometimes caused by blunt trauma or by bacterial or mycotic infection.

abdominal aortic aneurysm

Abbreviation: AAA
A localized dilatation (saccular, fusiform, or dissecting) of the wall of the abdominal aorta. It is generally found to involve the renal arteries and frequently the iliac arteries. Occasionally the dilatation can extend upward through the diaphragm.

The patient is usually asymptomatic, and diagnosis is made accidentally during a routine physical examination or abdominal x-ray or during screening of the elderly hypertensive male. Serial ultrasounds confirm the diagnosis and determine the size, shape, and location of the aneurysm. Small, asymptomatic aneurysms may be followed over time, rather than repaired (see below). Computed tomography, magnetic resonance imaging, or aortography may assist in confirming the diagnosis and the condition of proximal and distal vessels.

Symptoms

Symptoms, when present, include generalized abdominal pain, low back pain unaffected by movement, and sensations of gastric or abdominal fullness. Sudden severe lumbar or abdominal pain radiating to the flank and groin, esp. if associated with tachycardia and hypotension, may indicate enlargement or imminent rupture. Signs can include a pulsating mass in the periumbilical area and a systolic bruit over the aorta.

Treatment

Untreated abdominal aortic aneurysms gradually enlarge and in some instances rupture. The likelihood of rupture increases for aneurysms that are larger than 5.5 cm. Surgical repair is recommended for all aneurysms larger than 6 cm. If an aneurysm is tender and known to be enlarging rapidly (no matter what its size), surgery is strongly recommended. Surgical therapy consists of replacing the aneurysmal segment with a synthetic fabric (Dacron) graft. Immediate surgery is indicated for a ruptured aortic abdominal aneurysm. An alternative treatment to traditional laparotomy is to insert a bypass graft percutaneously into the aorta.

Patient care

In acute dissection of an abdominal aortic aneurysm, oxygenation, blood pressure and cardiac rhythm are closely monitored, and a pulmonary artery line may be inserted to monitor hemodynamics. The patient is observed for signs of rupture, which may be fatal. He will require an intravenous line via a large-bore catheter, a urinary catheter, and an arterial line and pulmonary artery catheter to monitor fluid and hemodynamic balance. Additionally, cardiac monitor electrodes will be placed, and a nasogastric tube inserted.

Prescribed medications are administered to manage contributory factors such as hypertension and hypercholesterolemia; a beta-adrenergic blocking agent may be prescribed to reduce the risk of expansion and rupture. The patient is instructed in their use and taught about adverse effects that should be reported. In acute aortic rupture, admission to the intensive care unit is arranged, a blood sample is obtained for typing and cross-matching, and a large-bore (14G) venous catheter is inserted to facilitate blood replacement. The patient is prepared for and informed about elective surgery if indicated or emergency surgery if rupture occurs. The patient will require an intravenous line via a large-bore catheter, a urinary catheter, and an arterial line and pulmonary artery catheter to monitor fluid and hemodynamic balance. Additionally, cardiac monitor electrodes will be placed, and a nasogastric tube inserted. During surgery the patient will be intubated and mechanically ventilated, and such therapies will most likely still be in place postoperatively in the ICU.

Desired outcomes include the patient's ability to express anxiety, use support systems, and perform stress reduction techniques that assist with coping; demonstrated abatement of physical signs of anxiety; avoidance of activities that increase the risk of rupture; understanding of and cooperation with the prescribed treatment regimen; ability to identify indications of rupture and to institute emergency measures; maintenance of normal fluid and blood volume in acute situations; and recovery from elective or emergency surgery with no complications. Generally post-operative patients are assisted to ambulate by the second day after surgery. Pain management and psychological support are extremely important during the acute postoperative period.

Prevention

Because of the relatively high incidence of AAA in men over age 60 (esp. smokers or men with intermittent claudication) and patients with myesthenia gravis, screening for AAA is recommended for these people.

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AORTIC ANEURYSMS

aortic aneurysm

An aneurysm affecting any part of the aorta from the aortic valve to the iliac arteries. The dilated artery is usually asymptomatic, detected as an incidental finding during imaging. See: illustration

arteriovenous aneurysm

An aneurysm of congenital or traumatic origin in which an artery and vein become connected. Symptoms may include pain, expansive pulsation, and bruits or, occasionally, high-output heart failure.

atherosclerotic aneurysm

Aneurysm due to degeneration or weakening of the arterial wall caused by atherosclerosis.

Bérard's aneurysm

See: Bérard's aneurysm

berry aneurysm

A small saccular congenital aneurysm of a cerebral vessel. It communicates with the vessel by a small opening. Rupture of this type of aneurysm may cause subarachnoid hemorrhage, a devastating form of stroke.

cerebral aneurysm

Aneurysm of a blood vessel in the brain.

Charcot-Bouchard aneurysm

See: Charcot-Bouchard aneurysm

cirsoid aneurysm

A dilatation of a network of vessels commonly occurring on the scalp. The mass may form a pulsating subcutaneous tumor.
Synonym: racemose aneurysm

compound aneurysm

Aneurysm in which some of the layers of the vessel are ruptured and others dilated.

dissecting aneurysm

Aneurysm in which the blood makes its way between the layers of a blood vessel wall, separating them; a result of necrosis of the medial portion of the arterial wall.
See: aortic aneurysm for illus.

fusiform aneurysm

Aneurysm in which all the walls of a blood vessel dilate more or less equally, creating a tubular swelling.
See: aortic aneurysm for illus.

mycotic aneurysm

Aneurysm due to bacterial infection.

racemose aneurysm

Cirsoid aneurysm.

sacculated aneurysm

Aneurysm in which there is weakness on one side of the vessel; usually due to trauma. It is attached to the artery by a narrow neck.
See: aortic aneurysm for illus.

varicose aneurysm

Aneurysm forming a blood-filled sac between an artery and a vein.

venous aneurysm

Localized expansion and weakening of the wall of a vein.

aneurysm

a sac formed by the localized dilatation of the wall of an artery, vein or the heart.

aortic aneurysm
see aortic aneurysm.
arteriovenous aneurysm
an abnormal communication between an artery and a vein in which the blood flows directly into a neighboring vein or is carried into the vein by a connecting sac.
atherosclerotic aneurysm
one arising as a result of weakening of the tunica media in severe atherosclerosis.
bacterial aneurysm
an infected aneurysm caused by bacteria.
berry aneurysm
a small saccular aneurysm of a cerebral artery, usually at the junction of vessels in the circle of Willis; such aneurysms frequently rupture, causing subarachnoid hemorrhage. Called also brain aneurysm.
cardiac aneurysm
thinning and dilatation of a portion of the wall of the left ventricle, usually a consequence of myocardial infarction.
cirsoid aneurysm
dilatation and tortuous lengthening of part of an artery.
compound aneurysm
one in which some of the layers of the wall of the vessel are ruptured and some merely dilated. Called also mixed aneurysm.
congenital aneurysm
observed sporadically in the aorta and pulmonary artery.
dissecting aneurysm
one resulting from hemorrhage that causes lengthwise splitting of the arterial wall, producing a tear in the inner wall (intima) and establishing communication with the lumen of the vessel; it usually affects the thoracic aorta. Seen most commonly in horses and caused by larvae of Strongylus vulgaris. See strongylosis. A specific disease of turkeys.
fusiform aneurysm
a spindle-shaped aneurysm.
infected aneurysm
one produced by growth of microorganisms (bacteria or fungi) in the vessel wall, or infection arising within a pre-existing arteriosclerotic aneurysm.
inherited aortic aneurysm
causes a high mortality rate in the affected cattle breed. The defect is in the abdominal aorta.
lung aneurysm
may result from the lodgement of pulmonary emboli; rupture and pulmonary hemorrhage are potential sequelae.
mixed aneurysm
compound aneurysm.
mycotic aneurysm
an infected aneurysm caused by fungi.
pseudoaneurysm
false aneurysm.
racemose aneurysm
cirsoid aneurysm.
sacculated aneurysm
a saclike aneurysm.
varicose aneurysm
one formed by rupture of an aneurysm into a vein. See also aneurysmal varix.
venous aneurysm
see venous dilatation.
verminous aneurysm