quinolone


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quinolone

 [kwin´o-lōn]
any of a group of synthetic antibacterial agents that includes cinoxacin, ciprofloxacin, nalidixic acid, norfloxacin, and ofloxacin.

quinolone

/quin·o·lone/ (kwin´o-lōn) any of a group of synthetic antibacterial agents that includes nalidixic acid and the fluoroquinolones.

quinolone

(kwĭn′ə-lōn′)
n.
Any of a class of synthetic broad-spectrum antibacterial drugs derived from quinoline compounds.

quinolone

[kwin′əlōn]
any of a class of antibiotics that act by interrupting the replication of deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) molecules in bacteria. The action involves inhibition of the bacteria's gyrase so that positively supercoiled DNA cannot be relaxed for DNA transcription and replication. An example is ciprofloxacin.

anabolic steroid

A drug or hormone-like substance chemically or pharmacologically related to 17-α-alkylated testosterone that promotes muscle growth, which are commonly abused by athletes. Lipid changes by ASs are more marked with oral stanazol (manufactured for horses) than with IV testosterone; it decreases HDL-C (especially HDL2) and increases hepatic TG lipase (HDL) catabolism.
 
Indications
Children, adolescents with delayed puberty, decreased growth, small penis, hypogonadism, testosterone deficiency, osteoporosis management, aplastic anaemia, endometriosis, angioedema, sports performance enhancement (no longer legal), relief and recovery from common injuries, rehabilitation, weight control, anti-insomnia, and regulation of sexuality, aggression and cognition.

Route
Oral, parenteral.
 
Metabolic effects
Increased protein synthesis and amino acid consumption, androgenesis, catabolism and gluticocototitosis.
 
Adverse effects (men)
Breast enlargement (gynecomastia), testicular atrophy, sterility, sperm abnormalities, impotence, prostatic hypertrophy, myocardial hypertrophy and fibrosis, myocardial infarction and fatal arrhythmias, peliosis hepatis, cholestasis, hepatic adenomas, testicular atrophy, peripheral oedema, intracerebral thrombosis.

Adverse effects (women)
Clitoral hypertrophy, beard growth, baldness, deepened voice, decreased breast size.

Adverse effects (men and women)
Aggression and antisocial behavior, increased risk of cardiovascular disease, peliosis hepatis, haemorrhage, jaundice, acne, accelerated bone maturation resulting in short stature, liver tumours (hepatic adenomas and CA) which may regress with abstinence; AS abusers are at an increased risk for HIV transmission, given the common practice of sharing of needles when injecting ASs.

Lab
ASs are detectable to 1 parts per billion 4 days after last use if the hormone is water-soluble, or 14 days after use in lipid-soluble compounds.

FDA status
ASs are schedule-III drugs per the Controlled Substances Act.

quinolone

Fluoroquinolone Infectious disease Any of a family of broad-spectrum oral antibiotics–eg, ciprofloxacin, norfloxacin, and ofloxicin, which target bacterial DNA gyrase and concentration-dependent inhibitors of DNA synthesis; bacterial resistance to quinolones is rare and hinges on mutations of gyrase; quinolones are active against most aerobes, including bacteria resistant to other antibiotics; they are effective in GI, GU, prostatic, respiratory infections, STDs Adverse effects GI discomfort, vague CNS Sx

quinolone (kwin´əlōn´),

n a class of antibiotics that act by interrupting the replication of deoxyribonucleic acid molecules in bacteria.
References in periodicals archive ?
The Quinolone Vigilance Foundation urges the FDA to continue this necessary work by further regulating fluoroquinolones, strengthening warnings in clear language, and applying its highest level of scrutiny and surveillance of fluoroquinolones.
Using new technology to optimize the quinolones, the MMV project team demonstrated that these compounds were indeed highly effective against Plasmodium falciparum, the most lethal strain of malaria, and Plasmodium vivax, the major cause of malaria outside Africa.
10); yet prescriptions for quinolones grew by 10% and prescriptions for cephalosporins grew by 3% (P less than .
Typhi are also influenced by variations in global epidemiology of disease and in ease of availability of quinolone antimicrobial drugs, including over-the-counter access in Asia, where much higher levels of resistance have been documented (7).
Broad dissemination of plasmidmediated quinolone resistance genes in sediments of two urban coastal wetlands.
It suggests that mutations in gyrA might determine the main resistance ability to quinolone, while additional parC mutation might mediate a higher level of resistance to quinolones.
Two other quinolones, norfloxacin and lomefloxacin, are used primarily to treat urinary tract and prostate infections, and ofloxacin is another that is manufactured in a topical form for ear and eye disease.
5 1639 50 50 1640 50 50 1275 100 50 1637 200 50 1628 400 50 RFLP, restriction fragment length polymorphism; QRDR, quinolone resistance determining region; ND, not determined.
Since 1995, when the Food and Drug Administration approved quinolones for use in poultry, the rates of resistance have gone up dramatically.
The Quinolone Vigilance Foundation calls upon the FDA to take immediate action in restricting the use of fluoroquinolone antibiotics and to add stronger warnings.
Between 1998 and 2009, outpatient prescribing of first-line antibiotics for the treatment of uncomplicated cystitis in women remained constant--yet the number of quinolone prescriptions grew significantly, results from an analysis of national data demonstrated.
Although fluoroquinolone resistance in Enterobacteriaceae is predominantly due to topoisomerase mutations, 3 plasmid-mediated mechanisms have been described that confer decreased susceptibility to ciprofloxacin: quinolone resistance proteins (Qnr), Aac(6')-Ib-cr, and QepA efflux (2).