quaternary ammonium compounds


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quaternary ammonium compounds

Compounds in which the four hydrogen atoms of the ammonium radical are replaced by organic radicals. They are used as antiseptics.

quaternary ammonium compounds

types of chemical disinfecting agent with surfactant and detergent properties, e.g. cetrimide, which is active against Gram-positive bacteria, but which is tissue-toxic and readily inactivated by the presence of organic compounds (see Table 1)
Table 1: Types of chemical disinfectant agents
AgentComment
Phenolic compoundsWidely effective against bacteria and fungi; little action against viruses
Used as a 2% v/v solution to disinfect soiled but not blood-contaminated items and a 1% v/v solution for non-soiled items
Inactivated by blood and cationic detergents (not inactivated by other organic materials or anionic/non-ionic detergents)
'Coal tar derivative' types are suitable for floor cleaning
'Pine' types are poor disinfectants and unsuitable for clinical use
Chlorine compounds, e.g. hypochlorites; dichloroisocyanurates (NaDCC)Effective against microorganisms and viruses, including blood-borne viruses
Easily inactivated by blood and organic matter, thus items must be washed first, before being disinfected with chlorine-containing products
Used as 0.1% (1000 ppm) solution routinely in the clinic, but as a 1% solution (10 000 ppm) to clean up after blood spillages
Manufactured as concentrates (10% solutions), powders or tablets which are dissolved as necessary for immediate use
Note:
• 1 volume of 10% concentrate is diluted with 99 volumes of water to form a solution that contains 0.1% (1000 ppm) available chlorine
• 1 volume of 10% concentrate is diluted with 9 volumes of water to form a solution that contains 1% (10 000 ppm) available chlorine
Iodine compoundsAlcoholic solutions of iodine are effective disinfectants, but cause skin irritation and staining
Iodophores (organic complexes containing iodine, e.g. povidone-iodine) are equally effective but less irritant and staining
Iodophores have a wide spectrum of action against bacteria, fungi, viruses and spore forms, and are used for preoperative skin preparation and wound care
AlcoholsEthyl and isopropyl alcohol have a wide spectrum of action and a rapid onset of effect; they are not very effective against viruses
They are prepared as aqueous solutions (70% ethanol in water to 100%; 60-70% isopropyl alcohol in water to 100%)
They are used for the rapid disinfection of clean skin (alcohol hand gels) and hard surfaces (alcohol-impregnated disposable tissues)
They are used in combination with other antimicrobial agents
Biguanide compounds, e.g. chlorhexidineEffective against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria, but poor action against viruses
Their effectiveness is enhanced and more rapid in onset when diluted with alcohol (0.5% chlorhexidine in 70% isopropyl alcohol)
Inactivated by soap and anionic detergent; not recommended for general environmental use
Widely used in skin preparation, as alcohol or cationic detergent-based products
Triclosan (2,4,4'- thrichlor-2'-hydroxydiphenylether)Effective against both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria, with little reported toxicity
Prepared as alcoholic and aqueous solutions
Quaternary ammonium compoundsA group of disinfecting agents with surfactant properties
Active against Gram-positive bacteria, but have little action against other microorganisms
5% Cetrimide mixed with 0.5.% chlorhexidine is used as a wound-cleansing agent
GlutaraldehydeA widely effective disinfectant, with good antiviral and sporicidal action, but which is irritant to skin (thus immersed items should be rinsed in sterile water). It is no longer routinely used in podiatry
For disinfection, the item should be immersed in the solution for 20-30 minutes
For sterilization, the item should be immersed in the solution for 3-10 hours
HexachloropheneEffective against Gram-positive bacteria, but little action against other microorganisms
It has largely been replaced by chlorhexidine or povidone-iodine

quaternary

1. fourth in a series.
2. made up of four elements or groups.

quaternary ammonium compounds
synthetic cationic detergents commonly used as disinfectants. They act against cell wall lipids in bacteria. An example is benzalkonium chloride. Effective in teat dips for mastitis control. Called also QUATs.
quaternary structure
the arrangement of separate polypeptide subunits in the structure of a multimeric protein.
References in periodicals archive ?
aeruginosa to be inherently resistant to quaternary ammonium compounds (Fraise, Lambert, & Maillert, 2004) but little resistance was seen in our study.
Quaternary ammonium compounds may contain added synthetic detergents for use as a one-step cleaner and disinfectant.
The method uses quaternary ammonium compounds for inhibiting the attachment of and for removing foodborne microbial contamination from poultry and meat products.
Hypochlorites had the largest share of the global Surface Disinfectant Market in 2015 and quaternary ammonium compounds are expected to grow at the highest CAGR between 2015 and 2020.
Quaternary ammonium compounds and related chemistries with Enhansys[R], Masurf[R], Macare[R], Macat[R], Macheck[TM], Maguard[R], Maquat[R], Masamide[R], Masodol[TM], Mason[R], Masoteric[TM], Masurf[R], Nobac[R]
Since the number of these reaction sites is limited, copper and quaternary ammonium compounds will compete for the same reaction sites in the wood.
The combination of alcohol and three quaternary ammonium compounds provides both immediate results and a long-lasting, residual kill of unwanted organisms including Clostridium Difficile spores which are traditionally very hard to remove.
While a number of disinfectants such as alcohols, hypochlorites, chlorohexidine, iodophors, hydrogen peroxide, and phenolics are used in healthcare facilities, many LTC facilities choose quaternary ammonium compounds (quats) to destroy, inhibit, or prevent growth of microbes on surfaces in patient/resident rooms.
1-Bromopropane: Used as a solvent for fats, waxes, and resins, and as an intermediate in the synthesis of pharmaceuticals, insecticides, quaternary ammonium compounds, flavors, and fragrances.
Mycobacteria are also quite resistant to agents used for surface and instrument disinfection, including quaternary ammonium compounds, phenolics, iodophors, and glutaraldehyde (16,22,23,36) and can degrade the disinfectant morpholine (20).
However a literature survey reveals that quaternary ammonium compounds were not used for NR or any other non-polar rubber vulcanization prior to our earlier communication (ref.
Chapter 20 Role of Quaternary Ammonium Compounds on Antimicrobial Resistance in the Environment