Based on this theoretical understanding, it is possible to appreciate the important role soft tissue loading is thought to play in terms of stabilizing the residual limb and quadrilateral socket in the coronal plane as well as minimizing complications.
By logical extension, the absence of IC--as is the case in a quadrilateral socket or poorly fit IC socket--implies that stiffness of the medial soft tissue of the residual limb will be paramount in maintaining coronal plane stability .
In a quadrilateral socket, this is achieved by flattening the medial wall of the socket, but there are a variety of "generically round" transfemoral socket shapes that will likely achieve the same tissue precompression and similar outcomes without IC.
Radcliffe's analyses of quadrilateral sockets proposed that compression of the soft tissue along the proximal-medial aspect of the residual limb was important to prevent the socket translating laterally during single-limb support when large internal abduction moments were present, thereby minimizing discomfort and compensatory gait adaptations [3-4].
In Mayfield's recovered study, the quadrilateral socket group, Group 1, has an average of 3.
In the 1950s, when the quadrilateral socket design was coalescing into a standardized design with total contact, suction suspension, and identifying socket shape, early depictions of alignment included the distal femur.
The attempt to support the amputated femur in an adducted position, an established design goal of the quadrilateral socket, resulted in the revised alignment and socket design for the patients at FAMC.
s study, both socket styles were X-rayed and "in three of the five patients, abduction in the quadrilateral socket was converted to adduction" .
Experiences of above-knee amputees with an NML-Socket in comparison with a quadrilateral socket.
Within the group of 38 X-rayed patients, femoral abduction was discovered in the majority of the standard-aligned quadrilateral sockets.
They schematically represent the femoral abduction discovered (Figure 5(a)) in the X-rayed quadrilateral sockets and the improvement in adduction achieved and documented through alignment and socket shape modification (Figure 5(b)).
In his introduction, Sabolich discusses quadrilateral sockets
, CAT-CAM, SFS, different types of amputations, why some are better for certain people, and what factors should be considered by both the physician and the prosthetist.