The 8-channel seated-posture-control neuroprosthesis that we suggested in this article (FES of the erector spinae, quadratus lumborum or abdominal obliques, gluteus maximus, and iliopsoas, bilaterally) would significantly benefit its users by increasing the bimanual work space, contributing to a reduced incidence of pressure-ulcer development and allowing improved toileting and wheelchair propulsion.
We found that a set of eight muscles (thoracic and lumbar erector spinae, abdominal obliques or quadratus lumborum, the gluteus maximus, and the iliopsoas, all bilaterally) produced a wide range of feasible seated postures, as well as substantial resistance to external loading.
Key trigger point Associated satellite trigger point sternocleidomastoid temporalis, masseter upper trapezius temporalis, masseter scalene deltoid, extensor carpi radialis, extensor digitorum communis splenius capitis temporalis supraspinatus deltoid, extensor carpi radialis infraspinatus biceps brachii pectoralis minor flexor carpi radialis, flexor carpi ulnaris latissimus dorsi triceps brachii, flexor carpi ulnaris serratus posterior superior triceps brachii, extensor digitorum communis, extensor carpi ulnaris quadratus lumborum
gluteus maximus, piriformis piriformis hamstrings hamstrings gastrocnemius, soleus
Works on: This exercise strengthens the Quadratus lumborum
, internal and external obliques.
The muscles that are referred to as core muscles are not just the abdominals, the quadratus lumborum
, and the erector spinae, but all of the muscles within the trunk and hips, including the obliques, the multifidi, and the gluteal muscles.
Although some authors do mention the presence of lumbar muscles and fascia, specifi cally the quadratus lumborum, multifi dus and iliocostalis lumborum (Collee et al.
Furthermore the iliolumbar ligament is closely associated with the lower attachments of the anterior and middle layers of the thoracolumbar fascia and the quadratus lumborum muscle (Bogduk 1997; Frazer 1940; Fujiwara et al.
Access from a posterior approach requires palpation through the skin, a substantial amount of subcutaneous tissue, the thoracolumbar fascia, erector spinae aponeurosis, and finally through the iliocostalis lumborum and quadratus lumborum muscles (Frazer 1940; Shellshear and Macintosh 1949) (Figure 4).
Low back muscles: The erector spinae group (spinalis longissimus and iliocostalis), the transversospinalis group (multifidi, rotators, and semispinalis), and the quadratus lumborum
, comprise the posterior extrinsic and intrinsic support groups.