Background: Because of the hepatotoxic, mutagenic, and cancerogenic effects of pyrrolizidine
alkaloids (PAs) the German Federal Institute for Risk Assessment (BfR) recommends not to exceed a daily PA intake of 0.
Only seed of borage oil can be used internally because the herb contains toxic pyrrolizidine
alkaloids [Borage: Herbal Medicines].
For instance, pheromone production in males has been determined to directly depend on their diet as caterpillars, and only occurs when the diet contains Crotalaria pyrrolizidine
alkaloids (PAs) (conner et al.
In 1992 the Commonwealth Drugs and Poisons Scheduling Standing Committee (now National Drugs and Poisons Schedule Committee) scheduled a number of herbs containing pyrrolizidine
alkaloids, restricting the use of such herbs as Borago off, Pulmonaria spp, Senecio spp, Tussilago farfara and Symphytum off (which, based on lack of scientific evidence, was later rescheduled to allow its use topically).
The plant BS contains tropane alkaloids, pyrrolizidine
alkaloids, lycopsamine, and Ithomiinae, (18) and CR contains 1, 2-dihydroanthraquinone and 1, 2-dihydro-1, 3, 8-trihydroxy-2-methyl anthraquinone.
The product is a pyrrolizidine
Comment 10 HOW IT KILLS COMMON ragwort contains pyrrolizidine
alkaloids which are poisonous, particularly to horses as well as other animals such as cattle and sheep.
CYP3A is involved in the metabolism of foreign compounds, such as naturally occurring flavonoids, diterpenoids in germander, pyrrolizidine
The various ailments for which searches are going on in plants for newer drugs are too numerous to mention; to cite just a few examples, new plant-derived compounds are being searched for treatment of malaria because of the increasing resistance of Plasmodium falciparum against currently available anti-malarial drugs (Batista, et al, 2009; Kihampa, et al, 2009), searches for anti-fungal, molluscicidal and larvicidal compounds in African medicinal plants has been reviewed by Marston et al (1993), anti-leishmanial activity in Israeli plants has been reviewed by El-On et al (2009), and anti-trypanosomal and cytotoxic activities of pyrrolizidine
alkaloid-producing plants of Ethiopia has been reported by Nibret et al (2009).
alkaloidosis in Argentinean cattle caused by Senecio selloi.
90 mg butterbur root (Petasites rhizoma drug to extract ratio (DER) 7-14:1, ethanol 90% M/M; content of pyrrolizidine
alkaloids below detection limit of 35 ppb)
Some specific topics covered include plant-herbivore interaction, hydrocarbons and insects' social physiology, addiction to pyrrolizidine
alkaloids in male Danaine butterflies, and physiology related to choices in feeding, mating, and oviposition.