Also found in: Dictionary, Acronyms, Encyclopedia, Wikipedia.
Related to pyrazinamide: ethambutol


an antibacterial derived from nicotinic acid, used in treatment of tuberculosis.


PMS Pyrazinamide (CA), Tebrazid (CA)

Pharmacologic class: Niacinamide derivative

Therapeutic class: Antitubercular

Pregnancy risk category C


Unknown. Thought to exert bacteriostatic activity.


Tablets: 500 mg

Indications and dosages


Adults and children: 15 to 30 mg/kg/day P.O., not to exceed 2 g/day; or 50 to 70 mg/kg P.O. twice weekly, up to a maximum of 4 g/dose; or 50 to 70 mg/kg/dose P.O. three times weekly, up to a maximum of 3 g/dose

Dosage adjustment

• Renal impairment


• Hypersensitivity to drug
• Severe hepatic disease
• Acute gout


Use cautiously in:
• renal failure, diabetes mellitus, porphyria, chronic gout, history of gout
• pregnant or breastfeeding patients
• children younger than age 13.


• Give with other antituberculars, as prescribed, to reduce risk of resistant organisms.
• Be aware that drug therapy may last 6 months or longer.

Adverse reactions

CNS: headache

GI: nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, peptic ulcer, abdominal cramps, anorexia

GU: dysuria, increased uric acid secretion

Hematologic: hemolytic anemia

Hepatic: hepatotoxicity

Metabolic: hyperuricemia, gout

Musculoskeletal: joint pain

Skin: urticaria, photosensitivity


Drug-drug.Ethionamide: increased risk of hepatotoxicity

Probenecid: decreased probenecid efficacy (possibly precipitating gout)

Drug-diagnostic tests.Acetest or Ketostix urine test: false interpretation

Liver function tests: abnormal results

Uric acid: increased level

Patient monitoring

• Monitor CBC, uric acid level, and liver and kidney function tests.
• Assess for signs and symptoms of gout, hepatic failure, and hemolytic anemia.

Discontinue at first sign of hepatic impairment or hyperuricemia accompanied by acute gouty arthritis.

Patient teaching

• Advise patient to take regularly with other antituberculars, as prescribed.

Teach patient to recognize and immediately report signs and symptoms of gout and liver impairment.
• As appropriate, review all other significant and life-threatening adverse reactions and interactions, especially those related to the drugs and tests mentioned above.


/pyr·a·zin·amide/ (pir″ah-zin´ah-mīd) an antibacterial derived from nicotinic acid, used as a tuberculostatic.


an antimycobacterial.
indications It is prescribed in combination chemotherapy in the treatment of tuberculosis of hospitalized patients who fail to respond to other medications.
contraindications Severe liver damage, acute gout, or known hypersensitivity to this drug prohibits its use. Use with caution in renal failure, chronic gout, diabetes mellitus, or porphyria.
adverse effects Common side effects include malaise, nausea, GI upset, and arthralgia and myalgia. Among the more serious adverse reactions are hepatotoxicity and hyperuricemia.


An antituberculosis drug that diffuses well into the CEREBRO-SPINAL FLUID and is used to treat tuberculous MENINGITIS. The drug is on the WHO official list. A brand name, with other antituberculosis drugs, is Rifater.

pyrazinamide (pir´əzin´əmīd´),

n brand name: generic;
drug class: antitubercular;
action: bactericidal interference with lipid, nucleic acid biosynthesis;
use: tuberculosis, as an adjunct with other drugs.

pyrazinamide, pyrazinecarboxamide

an antibacterial agent used for the oral treatment of tuberculosis in humans. Also used in a biochemical test for the identification of mycobacteria.
References in periodicals archive ?
It has been previously reported that initial resistance to either kanamycin, ofloxacin or pyrazinamide is significantly associated with a longer time to initial sputum culture conversion, and that resistance to ofloxacin and low body mass index are risk factors for poor treatment outcomes (16).
The drug regimen usually consists of isoniazid, rifampin, and pyrazinamide for patients with susceptible organisms.
9) During the intensive phase, which usually spans 2 months, the regimen includes a combination of four first-line drugs: rifampicin, isoniazid, pyrazinamide, and streptomycin.
He had received tuberculosis (TB) treatment (rifampicin, isoniazid, pyrazinamide and ethambutol) for one month.
The patient was subsequently medically treated with TB quadruple therapy: Isoniazid, rifampin, ethambutol and pyrazinamide.
The strain was sensitive to all first-line drugs used to treat TB in Canada: isoniazid (INH), rifampin, ethambutol and pyrazinamide.
She was commenced on Rifampicin 600mg, Isoniazid 300mg, Pyrazinamide 2g and Ethambutol 900mg daily.
The drugs involved are a new drug candidate called PA-824; moxifloxacin, an antibiotic not yet approved for use in first-line TB therapy and pyrazinamide, an existing TB drug.
It involved the new combination therapy called PaMZ, consisting of the novel TB drug candidate, PA-824; moxifloxacin, an established antibiotic not yet approved for use in first-line TB therapy and being developed in partnership with Bayer Healthcare AG; and pyrazinamide, an existing TB drug.
Treatment with isoniazid, ethambutol, pyrazinamide, and rifampicin was initiated under the diagnosis of testis tuberculosis.
Study subjects were adults with newly diagnosed sputum smear positive pulmonary tuberculosis who were randomly assigned to receive either separate tablets of rifampin, isoniazid, pyrazinamide, and ethambutol or a single combination tablet of the same drugs every day for an 8-week "intensive" phase of the trial.
Studies of latent TB infection in a mouse model revealed that 2 months of treatment with a combination of rifampin and pyrazinamide (PZA) resulted in complete clearance of TB bacilli-a bacteriologic effect comparable to that achieved with 6 months INH in the same mouse model.