Infected hydronephrosis is a urological emergency which, in addition to a rapid and precise diagnosis, requires the drainage of the pyelocalyceal
system in a specialised unit.
The ultrasonographic diagnosis of infected hydronephrosis depends on demonstration of internal echoes within the dependent portion of a dilated pyelocalyceal
2] Duplicated collecting systems can be defined as a renal unit containing 2 pyelocalyceal
systems associated with a single ureter or with double ureters.
Based on the IVP findings, the pyelocalyceal
system dilation and ureteral stasis or obstruction were divided into four grades (Table 2).
These include the Elikin and Bernstein118 medullary necrosis, inflammatory and traumatic categories, and cystic degeneration of carcinomas, and the Brisceglia et al (113) renal tumors with cystic necrosis and some pseudocystic diseases, such as pyelocalyceal
cysts and lymphocele.
Radiographic findings include uniform renal enlargement, diminished nephrographic density, delayed calyceal opacification, diminished calyceal contrast density, and attenuated and distended pyelocalyceal
diverticulum may fail to opacify at IVU or CT if infection or scarring obstructs its infundibulum .
system was approached with the insertion of an 18-gauge Chiba needle from the upper and lower pole tracts with the guidance of fluoroscopy.
154) The typical inheritance pattern and associations, for example, maturity-onset diabetes of the young (MODY5), severe pancreatic hypoplasia, or pyelocalyceal
abnormalities can be very helpful in this setting (Figure 8).
His ultrasonographic examination revealed severe dilatation of the pyelocalyceal
system of the right kidney.
No macroscopic extension in the renal veins or pyelocalyceal
cavities was found.