Mean squares were equated to expectations to solve for variance and covariance components for each trait (sucrose yield, cane yield, sucrose content, stalk weight, stalk number, internodes per stalk, % bored internodes, damage rating, % exited internodes, pupation
success, moth production, and plant damage response rating).
In an earlier outdoor experiment, pupation
in individuals destined for hibernation took place in late July and early August under similar conditions (Wiklund et al.
The period of time between exiting from host and pupation
was approximately five hours.
The percentage of larvae reaching pupation
on cellulose-, kernel-, and silk-modified diet was 84.
virescens larvae survived to 6 d of age; survival was relatively constant from 6 d to pupation
[ILLUSTRATION FOR FIGURE 4 OMITTED].
In all three species, under high food levels, the larvae gain weight rapidly, molt frequently, and pass through a characteristic, consistent number of instars before pupation
started from day 8-15 whereas adult emergence was recorded from day 11-16.
Average development times from egg collection to pupation
and from pupation
to adult emergence were calculated for each temperature and compared for differences among temperatures using analysis of variance and Tukey's method of multiple comparisons, with a = 0.
During this stage, the larvae were subsampled every 20 days, part of them were placed under 16 h light period at 24degC and observed the rate of pupation
to determine diapause termination, another part of them were stored at - 20degC until used for biochemical measurements.
Mealybug consumption per day by larvae of the predator was recorded and continued till its 1st instar were molted into 2nd and 3rd instars and than finally undergone to pupation
Larvae that ceased feeding in preparation for pupation
("shortening") were transferred to vials with moist Sphagnum moss (one larva per vial).
The purpose of our study was to enhance the understanding of the role of food limitation and temperature on larval growth, adult weight and pupation
and emergence times in V.