The usual external approach to a second branchial anomaly involves fish-mouth external incisions around the inferiorly located puncta
, with additional, wider stepladder incisions superiorly to accommodate deeper dissection through the carotid bifurcation.
At this point, the bird was anesthetized and the incision was reopened, which revealed that pieces of gelatin sponge had occluded both nasolacrimal puncta
and resulted in the accumulation of lacrimal secretions.
Immunocytochemical localization of RyRs in dissociated hippocampal neuronal cell cultures co-labeled with the F-actin label phalloidin to identify actin-rich dendritic spines confirmed RyR immunoreactive puncta
throughout the dendritic shafts of cultured hippocampal neurons (Figure 2B).
No discharge was elicited from the puncta
when pressure was applied to the lacrimal sacs.
Secretions flow across the eye toward the puncta
near the medial canthus.
In cases of moderate to severe dry eye, a temporary or permanent plug about the size of a sesame seed can be inserted into some of the channels, or puncta
, at the inner corner of the eyelid where tears drain into the nose and back of the throat.
And then traced with thorns, and the spaces between them, that turned the puncta
of sight into the punctilia of touch.
Because of the absence of eyelids on the right, nasolacrimal puncta
were not present on this side.
In relative terms, immediately after instillation, the drug concentration in the tears will be 100%, but this will decline rapidly as the volume of the eye drops is rapidly washed away through the puncta
and down the nasolacrimal duct.
The L-PPDS is a novel, sustained and controlled release drug delivery system that utilizes the puncta
to house a drug-eluting device.
The Landec ophthalmic device uses patented, cast-in-place thermoplastic technology to occlude the puncta
during an in-office procedure.