Nevertheless, the tremendous natural variability in lesion load in individual patients observed on serial scanning--as much as 10% to 20% from month to month--represents a far greater obstacle to the statistical demonstration of true treatment effects in clinical trials than the technical MRI parameters of slice thickness, pulse sequence
or contrast medium dose.
These limits are particularly relevant to RF-intensive pulse sequences
such as fast spin echo, steady-state free precession, and 3D gradient echo.
No special pulse sequences
are required, and this technique is available on nearly every MR system.
In MRI, these metabolites can be quantified with the use of dedicated coils and pulse sequences
and are better detected at higher field strengths.
There is little doubt, however, that ongoing developments in machine hardware, pulse sequence
design, and image reconstruction methods will address these shortcomings in future times.
Images obtained with conventional SE pulse sequences
take longer and are prone to motion artifacts; thus, supplementary techniques, such as fat suppression, are mandatory.
The MSK Extreme with v-SPEC has a versatile proprietary spectrometer design which uses host software to dynamically create pulse sequence
waveforms and synchronize them with extreme precision.
7,054,686, teaches use of a high frequency pulse sequence
in place of a single pacing signal so that stimulation of the heart can occur with lower energy, a technique with the potential to improve battery life of implantable devices.
The high-field advantage and gradient system of the OrthOne enhances clinical flexibility and productivity with a wide range of pulse sequence
imaging options at fast acquisition speeds.
Adapt and test magnetic resonance pulse sequences
to enhance neurovascular studies.
On April 5, the University Medical Center Utrecht began installing the first generation MRI-guided radiation therapy system for non-clinical testing, which includes the performance evaluation of MRI pulse sequences
, testing of different adaptive delivery methods, establishing quality assurance techniques and defining workflow.
The 12 chapters also discuss setting up a breast MRI practice, pulse sequences
, acquisition techniques, computer-aided detection methods, breast implant evaluation, and MRI-guided core biopsy.