If your oxygen level is chronically low due to sleep apnea, your valve leaks a bit, you binge drink alcohol, have uncontrolled hypertension, and if you are the person with many impulses coming from your pulmonary veins
, then it isn't certain when, but you will at some point go into atrial fibrillation.
Once isolation of all pulmonary veins
and integrity of roof line has been confirmed, catheter and sheaths are withdrawn from the left atrium.
Variation in systemic and pulmonary vein
anomalies anatomic pattern and clinical presentation can present a diagnostic dilemma which can have significant implications on its course and outcome.
Occasionally, a wandering right pulmonary vein
may create confusion before entering normally into the left atrium.
For bilateral PAPVC, in one patient atrial septal defect was enlarged and coronary sinus was unroofed and single autologous patch was used to reroute the pulmonary veins
and coronary sinus into left atrium.
Left atrial tachycardia after circumferential pulmonary vein
ablation for atrial fibrillation: Incidence, electrophysiological characteristics, and results of radiofrequency ablation.
Each of the four pulmonary veins
are in turn targeted with the balloon.
ATP-induced dormant pulmonary veins
originating from the carina region after circumferential pulmonary vein
isolation of atrial fibrillation," Journal of Cardiovascular Electrophysiology, vol.
However, we cannot consider it to be a very rare finding associated with PAPVR, because most of the cases of PAPVR reported in the literature do not clearly reveal if they are associated with any accessory pulmonary veins
The interlobular septal thickening, bronchial wall thickening, and ground glass opacities likely reflect both pulmonary vein
hypertension and engorged lymphatics.
A device called the Watchman is put in in a cath lab; the procedure is very similar to pulmonary vein
isolation," Henson says.
The pulmonary veins
were connected directly to the right atrium.