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stenosis[stĕ-no´sis] (pl. steno´ses)
an abnormal narrowing or contraction of a body passage or opening; called also arctation, coarctation, and stricture.
aortic stenosis obstruction to the outflow of blood from the left ventricle into the aorta; in the majority of adult cases the etiology is degenerative calcific disease of the valve.
hypertrophic subaortic stenosis (idiopathic hypertrophic subaortic stenosis) a cardiomyopathy of unknown cause, in which the left ventricle is hypertrophied and the cavity is small; it is marked by obstruction to left ventricular outflow.
mitral stenosis a narrowing of the left atrioventricular orifice (mitral valve) due to inflammation and scarring; the cause is almost always rheumatic heart disease. Normally the leaflets open with each pulsation of the heart, allowing blood to flow from the left atrium into the left ventricle, and close as the ventricle fills again so that they prevent a backward flow of blood. In mitral stenosis there is a resultant increase of pressure in the pulmonary artery and hypertrophy of the left ventricle. The usual treatment is surgical replacement of the valve.
pulmonary stenosis (PS) narrowing of the opening between the pulmonary artery and the right ventricle.
pyloric stenosis see pyloric stenosis.
renal artery stenosis narrowing of one or both renal arteries by atherosclerosis or by fibrous dysplasia or hyperplasia, so that renal function is impaired (see ischemic nephropathy). Increased renin release by the affected kidney causes renovascular hypertension, and bilateral stenosis may result in chronic renal failure.
spinal stenosis narrowing of the vertebral canal, nerve root canals, or intervertebral foramina of the lumbar spine, caused by encroachment of bone upon the space; symptoms are caused by compression of the cauda equina and include pain, paresthesias, and neurogenic claudication. The condition may be either congenital or due to spinal degeneration.
subaortic stenosis aortic stenosis due to an obstructive lesion in the left ventricle below the aortic valve, causing a pressure gradient across the obstruction within the ventricle. See also idiopathic hypertrophic subaortic stenosis.
subglottic stenosis stenosis of the trachea below the glottis. A congenital form results in neonatal stridor or laryngotracheitis, often requiring tracheotomy but resolving with age. An acquired form is caused by repeated intubations.
tracheal stenosis scarring of the trachea with narrowing, usually as a result of injury from an artificial airway or trauma.
tricuspid stenosis (TS) narrowing or stricture of the tricuspid orifice of the heart, a condition often seen in patients with severe congestive heart failure, usually the result of volume overload and pulmonary hypertension with right ventricular and tricuspid annular dilation.
narrowing of the opening into the pulmonary artery from the right ventricle.
an abnormal cardiac condition generally characterized by concentric hypertrophy of the right ventricle with relatively little increase in diastolic volume. When the ventricular septum is intact, this condition may be caused by valvular stenosis, infundibular stenosis, or both; it produces a pressure difference during systole between the right ventricular cavity and the pulmonary artery. Pulmonary stenosis is most often congenital but also may be produced after birth by any of a number of types of lesions. Severe pulmonary stenosis may result in heart failure and death, but mild to moderate forms of this disorder are relatively well tolerated. Also called pulmonic stenosis. See also congenital cardiac anomaly, valvular heart disease, valvular stenosis.
pulmonary stenosisPulmonary valve stenosis Cardiology A narrowed pulmonary annulus, which constitutes ±11% of congenital heart disease–CHD in adults; 90% of PS is valvular, the rest is subvalvular or supravalvular Clinical If severe, DOE, fatigability, retrosternal pain, syncope with exertion Heart sounds With moderate/severe disease, an RV impulse may be palpable at the left sternal border, and there may be a thrill at the 2nd IC space; the 1st HS is normal; the 2nd HS is widely split; a harsh crescendo-decrescendo murmur that ↑ with inspiration is heard along the left sternal border; an ejection click may precede the murmur, if the leaflets are pliable; with ↑ severity, the systolic murmur peaks later, the ejection click is earlier and superimposes on 1st HS Clinical Sx reflect severity of stenosis, RV function, tricuspid valve competence; if severe, DOE, fatigability, retrosternal pain, syncope with exertion EKG Rt axis deviation, RV hypertrophy Imaging CXR–normal cardiac silhouette–if enlarged, indicates RV failure, tricuspid regurgitation; post-stenotic dilation of main pulmonary artery and ↓ pulmonary vascular markings; Doppler flow allows assessment of severity of obstruction; catheterization and angiography are unnecessary Management If asymptomatic, prophylactic antibiotics to prevent infective endocarditis; if severe, percutaneous balloon valvuloplasty; valve replacement for dysplastic valves. See Supravalvular pulmonary stenosis. Cf Pulmonary regurgitation, Aortic stenosis.
pul·mo·nar·y ste·no·sis(pul'mŏ-nar-ē stĕ-nō'sis)
Narrowing of the opening into the pulmonary artery from the right ventricle.