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2. formation of an infarct.
cardiac infarction myocardial infarction.
cerebral infarction an ischemic condition of the brain, causing a persistent focal neurologic deficit in the area affected.
myocardial infarction see myocardial infarction.
pulmonary infarction localized necrosis of lung tissue caused by obstruction of the arterial blood supply, most often due to pulmonary embolism. Clinical manifestations range from the subclinical to pleuritic chest pain, dyspnea, hemoptysis, and tachycardia.
pulmonary infarction (PI)
Etymology: L, pulmoneus, lungs, infarcire, to stuff
necrosis in a part of a lung caused by an obstruction in a branch of a pulmonary artery. See also pulmonary embolism.
An infarction in the lung usually resulting from pulmonary embolism that may appear on x-rays as a wedge-shaped infiltrate near the pleura. Immediate therapy includes control of pain, oxygen administered continuously by mask, intravenous heparin (unless the patient has a known blood clotting defect), and treatment of shock or dysrhythmias, if present.
See also: infarction
1. the formation of an infarct.
2. an infarct.
see myocardial infarction (below) and also myocardial infarction.
an ischemic condition of the brain, causing a persistent focal neurological deficit in the area affected.
an aseptic fever caused by liberation of pyrogens from damaged tissue.
a common occurrence in horses due to occlusion of arteries by larvae of Strongylus vulgaris. Sections of intestine, sometimes very large ones, become devitalized leading to peritonitis and death.
May also result from torsion or strangulation. See also thromboembolic colic.
gross necrosis of the myocardium, due to interruption of the blood supply to the area. See also myocardial infarction.
localized necrosis of lung tissue, due to obstruction of the arterial blood supply.
is usually conical, anemic and multiple and may heal leaving a narrow scar. It is usually clinically inapparent unless the obstructing material is infected. This leads to the development of renal abscess or embolic nephritis, also usually without clinical signs unless the abscesses are large or numerous.
spinal cord infarction
caused sometimes by fibrocartilaginous emboli of prolapsed disk material, causing sudden loss of function of large sections of the spinal cord, leading to flaccid paralysis of the hindlimbs or of all four, depending on the site of the infarct.
usually hemorrhagic; may be difficult to differentiate from subcapsular hematoma.
a thrombus in a vein may cause infarction, e.g. in the thigh muscles of downer cow, recumbent for long periods, or in the gastric mucosa of pigs, where it is a common finding in acute septicemia.
pertaining to the lungs, or to the pulmonary artery. See also lung.
basic structural unit of the lung parenchyma; the gas exchange unit, supplied by a single terminal bronchiole and includes branches of the terminal bronchiole, alveolar ducts, alveolar sacs, alveoli and associated blood vessels. A pulmonary lobule consists of many acini.
incompatible with life; found only in fetal or neonatal necropsy specimens.
pulmonary alveolar microlithiasis
see microlithiasis alveolaris pulmonum.
pulmonary alveolar parenchyma
include epithelial cells (pneumonocytes or pneumocytes), alveolar capillary endothelial cells, and interstitial cells (fibroblasts) and alveolar macrophages.
pulmonary alveolar proteinosis
a disease of unknown etiology marked by chronic filling of the alveoli with a proteinaceous, lipid-rich, granular material consisting of surfactant and the debris of necrotic cells.
pulmonary artery wedge pressure
see wedge pressure.
the network of capillaries in lung tissue.
see microlithiasis alveolaris pulmonum.
see bronchial calculus.
see ovine pulmonary adenomatosis (below).
the circulation of blood to and from the lungs. Deoxygenated blood from the right ventricle flows through the right and left pulmonary arteries to the right and left lung. After entering the lungs, the branches subdivide, finally emerging as capillaries which surround the alveoli and release the carbon dioxide in exchange for oxygen. The capillaries unite gradually and assume the characteristics of veins. These veins join to form the pulmonary veins, which return the oxygenated blood to the left atrium. See also circulatory system.
a measure of the ability of the lung to distend in response to pressure without disruption. Expressed as the unit volume of change in the lung per unit of pressure. Compliance or distensibility of the lung is increased in conditions such as emphysema in which the lung distends more readily, and is decreased in fibrotic conditions in which the lung distends with difficulty. See also compliance.
caused by engorgement of the pulmonary vascular bed and it may precede pulmonary edema when the intravascular fluid escapes into the parenchyma and the alveoli. There is a loss of air space and the development of respiratory embarrassment.
may be congenital or acquired, caused by trauma, parasites (Paragonimus spp.), or associated with bronchiectasis. Rarely, metastatic tumors cavitate forming cysts.
pulmonary defense mechanisms
include aerodynamic filtration in nasal cavities, sneezing, local nasal antibody, laryngeal and cough reflexes, mucociliary transport mechanisms, alveolar macrophages, systemic and local antibody systems.
an effusion of serous fluid into the pulmonary interstitial tissues and alveoli. Preceded by pulmonary congestion (see above). If the extravascular exudation is sufficiently severe a critical level of hypoxia may be reached. The breathing will then be labored, the normal breath sounds on auscultation may be absent, and a frothy nasal discharge, often blood-tinged, may appear. At this stage the animal's life is about to terminate.
obstruction of the pulmonary artery or one of its branches by an embolus. The embolus usually is a blood clot swept into circulation from a large peripheral vein.
Signs vary greatly, depending on the extent to which the lung is involved. Simple, uncomplicated embolism produces such cardiopulmonary signs as dyspnea, tachypnea, persistent cough, pleuritic pain and hemoptysis. On rare occasions the cardiopulmonary signs may be acute, occurring suddenly and quickly producing cyanosis and shock. A septic embolus can lead to local pulmonary abscess or an extension to pneumonia as in caudal vena caval syndrome. See also caudal vena caval thrombosis, pulmonary abscess (above).
pulmonary eosinophilic granulomatosis
a lesion common in heartworm disease; eosinophiles and neutrophils surround trapped microfilariae causing nodules as large as 3 inches diameter. May be preceded by lesions of allergic pneumonitis.
exercise-induced pulmonary hemorrhage
traces of blood can be found in about 60% of horses after racing. Less than 1% of these bleed from the nostrils. See also epistaxis.
pulmonary function tests
tests used to evaluate lung mechanics, gas exchange, pulmonary blood flow and blood acid-base balance. Pulmonary function testing is used to detect emphysema and chronic obstructive bronchitis at an early stage.
as distinct from hemothorax, is recognized because of a syndrome of dyspnea, increased lung density radiographically, and hemorrhagic anemia. If a large vessel ruptures into an abscess cavity there is usually a massive hemoptysis and instant death. Frothy blood-stained nasal discharge is an indication of pulmonary edema rather than of pulmonary hemorrhage. See also exercise-induced pulmonary hemorrhage (above).
pulmonary horse sickness
the predominantly pulmonary form of african horse sickness.
pulmonary hypertrophic osteoarthropathy
see hypertrophic osteopathy.
a congenital defect resulting in decreased lung development.
see pulmonary infarction, pulmonary embolus (above).
pulmonary infiltration with eosinophilia (PIE)
see pie syndrome.
includes accessory lungs, pulmonary hypoplasia, pulmonary agenesis, congenital pulmonary cysts, endodermal heteroplasia, respiratory distress syndrome, neonatal maladjustment syndrome, immotile cilia syndrome.
includes aspergillosis, mortierellosis, blastomycosis, cryptococcosis, coccidioidomycosis.
many types are recorded in all species but the prevalence is very low in food animals. A common site for metastases in companion animals. Characterized clinically by decreased exercise tolerance, progressive dyspnea, chronic cough and emaciation. Most diagnoses result from radiographic examination of the thorax for secondary growths.
neurogenic pulmonary edema
results from head trauma, central nervous system lesions and toxins, which may cause increased pulmonary blood pressure and alteration to sympathetic innervation leading to fluid leakage from vessels.
overriding pulmonary artery
see overriding pulmonary artery.
ovine pulmonary adenomatosis
a very chronic progressive pneumonia of sheep and goats caused by a retrovirus. Dyspnea, emaciation and a profuse nasal discharge are the cardinal signs, but coughing is not evident. The disease is always fatal. It is of great importance if it occurs in flocks that are housed for long periods. Characteristically the extensive lung involvement includes large areas of neoplastic tissue. Called also jaagsiekte, pulmonary carcinomatosis.
see alveologram pattern, bronchial pattern.
re-expansion pulmonary edema
edema, emphysematous bullae and serosanguinous fluid in the airways with generalized pulmonary capillary endothelial damage; associated with chronic pulmonary collapse and removal of pleural effusions or pneumothorax with rapid re-expansion.
traumatic, especially when there is rib fracture, or spontaneous due to coughing and a weak parenchyma. The most common cause of pneumothorax.
pulmonary thromboembolic disease
thromboembolism causing blockage of large sections of the pulmonary vascular bed will result in at least temporary severe dyspnea. It may also lead to right heart congestive failure, i.e. cor pulmonale.
the pocket-like structure that guards the orifice between the right ventricle and the pulmonary artery.
pulmonary valve stenosis
causes right ventricular hypertrophy and a poststenotic dilatation of the pulmonary artery. There is a systolic murmur and thrill on the left side of the chest. A common congenital defect in dogs.
the large vein (right and left branches) that carries oxygenated blood from the lungs to the left atrium of the heart.
pulmonary wedge pressure
see wedge pressure.