pulmonary capillary wedge pressure


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Related to pulmonary capillary wedge pressure: Pulmonary artery wedge pressure, systemic vascular resistance

pressure

 (P) [presh´ur]
force per unit area.
arterial pressure (arterial blood pressure) blood pressure (def. 2).
atmospheric pressure the pressure exerted by the atmosphere, usually considered as the downward pressure of air onto a unit of area of the earth's surface; the unit of pressure at sea level is one atmosphere. Pressure decreases with increasing altitude.
barometric pressure atmospheric p.
blood pressure
2. pressure of blood on walls of any blood vessel.
capillary pressure the blood pressure in the capillaries.
central venous pressure see central venous pressure.
cerebral perfusion pressure the mean arterial pressure minus the intracranial pressure; a measure of the adequacy of cerebral blood flow.
cerebrospinal pressure the pressure of the cerebrospinal fluid, normally 100 to 150 mm Hg.
continuous positive airway pressure see continuous positive airway pressure.
filling pressure see mean circulatory filling pressure.
high blood pressure hypertension.
intracranial pressure see intracranial pressure.
intraocular pressure the pressure exerted against the outer coats by the contents of the eyeball.
intrapleural pressure (intrathoracic pressure) pleural pressure.
intrinsic positive end-expiratory pressure elevated positive end-expiratory pressure and dynamic pulmonary hyperinflation caused by insufficient expiratory time or a limitation on expiratory flow. It cannot be routinely measured by a ventilator's pressure monitoring system but is measurable only using an expiratory hold maneuver done by the clinician. Its presence increases the work needed to trigger the ventilator, causes errors in the calculation of pulmonary compliance, may cause hemodynamic compromise, and complicates interpretation of hemodynamic measurements. Called also auto-PEEP and intrinsic PEEP.
maximal expiratory pressure maximum expiratory pressure.
maximal inspiratory pressure the pressure during inhalation against a completely occluded airway; used to evaluate inspiratory respiratory muscle strength and readiness for weaning from mechanical ventilation. A maximum inspiratory pressure above −25 cm H2O is associated with successful weaning.
maximum expiratory pressure (MEP) a measure of the strength of respiratory muscles, obtained by having the patient exhale as strongly as possible against a mouthpiece; the maximum value is near total lung capacity.
maximum inspiratory pressure (MIP) the inspiratory pressure generated against a completely occluded airway; used to evaluate inspiratory respiratory muscle strength and readiness for weaning from mechanical ventilation. A maximum inspiratory pressure above −25 cm H2O is associated with successful weaning.
mean airway pressure the average pressure generated during the respiratory cycle.
mean circulatory filling pressure a measure of the average (arterial and venous) pressure necessary to cause filling of the circulation with blood; it varies with blood volume and is directly proportional to the rate of venous return and thus to cardiac output.
negative pressure pressure less than that of the atmosphere.
oncotic pressure the osmotic pressure of a colloid in solution.
osmotic pressure the pressure required to stop osmosis through a semipermeable membrane between a solution and pure solvent; it is proportional to the osmolality of the solution. Symbol π.
partial pressure the pressure exerted by each of the constituents of a mixture of gases.
peak pressure in mechanical ventilation, the highest pressure that occurs during inhalation.
plateau pressure in mechanical ventilation, the pressure measured at the proximal airway during an end-inspiratory pause; a reflection of alveolar pressure.
pleural pressure the pressure between the visceral pleura and the thoracic pleura in the pleural cavity. Called also intrapleural or intrathoracic pressure.
positive pressure pressure greater than that of the atmosphere.
positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) a method of control mode ventilation in which positive pressure is maintained during expiration to increase the volume of gas remaining in the lungs at the end of expiration, thus reducing the shunting of blood through the lungs and improving gas exchange. A PEEP higher than the critical closing pressure prevents alveolar collapse and can markedly improve the arterial Po2 in patients with a lowered functional residual capacity, as in acute respiratory failure.
Effects of the application of positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) on the alveoli. A, Atelectatic alveoli before PEEP application. B, Optimal PEEP application has reinflated alveoli to normal volume. C, Excessive PEEP application overdistends the alveoli and compresses adjacent pulmonary capillaries, creating dead space with its attendant hypercapnia. From Pierce, 1995.
pulmonary artery wedge pressure (PAWP) (pulmonary capillary wedge pressure (PCWP)) intravascular pressure, reflecting the left ventricular end diastolic pressure, measured by a swan-ganz catheter wedged into a small pulmonary artery to block the flow from behind.
pulse pressure the difference between the systolic and diastolic pressures. If the systolic pressure is 120 mm Hg and the diastolic pressure is 80 mm Hg, the pulse pressure is 40 mm Hg; the normal pulse pressure is between 30 and 40 mm Hg.
urethral pressure the pressure inwards exerted by the walls of the urethra, which must be counteracted in order for urine to flow through; see also urethral pressure profile.
venous pressure the blood pressure in the veins; see also central venous pressure.
water vapor pressure the tension exerted by water vapor molecules, 47 mm Hg at normal body temperature.
wedge pressure blood pressure measured by a small catheter wedged into a vessel, occluding it; see also pulmonary capillary wedge pressure and wedged hepatic vein pressure.
wedged hepatic vein pressure the venous pressure measured with a catheter wedged into the hepatic vein. The difference between wedged and free hepatic vein pressures is used to locate the site of obstruction in portal hypertension; it is elevated in that due to cirrhosis, but low in cardiac ascites or portal vein thrombosis.

pul·mo·nar·y cap·il·lar·y wedge pres·sure (PCWP),

the pressure obtained when a catheter is passed from the right side of the heart into the pulmonary artery as far as it will go and "wedged" into an end artery. PCWP is measured by letting pulmonary blood flow guide a balloon-flotation catheter into a small pulmonary end artery. The pressure distal to the wedged catheter is an approximation of left ventricular end diastolic pressure. The pressure recorded with the balloon deflated is pulmonary artery pressure.

pulmonary capillary wedge pressure

pul·mo·nar·y cap·il·lar·y wedge pres·sure

(PCWP) (pul'mŏ-nar-ē kap'i-lar-ē wej presh'ŭr)
The pressure obtained when a catheter is passed from the right side of the heart into the pulmonary artery as far as it will go and "wedged" into an end artery. The pressure distal to the wedged catheter is an approximation of cardiac left atrial pressure. The pressure recorded with the balloon deflated is pulmonary artery pressure.
References in periodicals archive ?
Amazingly, such patients have been known to generate pulmonary capillary wedge pressures as high as 40 mm Hg without having pulmonary edema.
Compared to available inotropes, known to be associated with increase of heart rate, hypotension and increase in atrial or ventricular arrhythmias, Debio 0614 demonstrated a rapid improvement of pulmonary capillary wedge pressure, associated with an apparent increase in systolic blood pressure and a trend to decrease heart rate, that makes this agent a promising therapy for the acute heart failure patients with low output stage," added Paolo Carminati, R&D Director of sigma-tau.
If therapy aimed at lowering pulmonary capillary wedge pressure can be titrated reasonably well using noninvasive echocardiographic measurements and the result is a patient perception of enhanced value of life, then echocardiography may provide a risk-free replacement for PAC.
In this population, the use of Natrecor reduced pulmonary capillary wedge pressure, an important measure of heart function, and improved breathing.
The amendment was based largely on the results of the VMAC (Vasodilation in the Management of Acute Congestive heart failure) trial, which demonstrated that Natrecor, added to standard care, had a statistically significant effect on the primary endpoint, reducing pulmonary capillary wedge pressure (PCWP, or filling pressures) in as little as 15 minutes.
In the VMAC trial, Natrecor had a statistically significant effect on the primary endpoint, reducing pulmonary capillary wedge pressure (PCWP) in as little as 15 minutes, an effect that was sustained for at least 48 hours without any loss of effectiveness (i.
Nesiritide appears to offer several benefits, particularly in the emergency room where most of these patients present, including rapid relief of symptoms and rapid control of pulmonary capillary wedge pressure.
This drug could offer several benefits, particularly in the emergency room where most of these patients present, including rapid relief of symptoms and rapid control of pulmonary capillary wedge pressure.
She required mechanical ventilation and her vital signs demonstrated marginal hemodynamics (blood pressure, 59/32 mm Hg; oxygen saturation, 95%; and pulmonary capillary wedge pressures in the 13-14 mm Hg range).