2. pertaining to the pulmonary artery.
pulmonary acid aspiration syndrome
a disorder produced as a complication of inhalation of gastric contents; it may progress to a syndrome resembling acute respiratory distress syndrome
pulmonary alveolar proteinosis a disease of unknown etiology marked by chronic filling of the alveoli with a proteinaceous, lipid-rich, granular material consisting of surfactant and the debris of necrotic cells. Some patients have a history of exposure to irritating dusts or fumes. The condition is treated by whole lung lavage with balanced salt solution; most patients need repeated lavage.
pulmonary artery the large artery originating from the superior surface of the right ventricle of the heart and carrying deoxygenated blood to the lungs for oxygenation; it starts as the pulmonary trunk, which divides between the fifth and sixth thoracic vertebrae to form the right pulmonary artery that enters the right lung and the left pulmonary artery that enters the left lung. See Appendix 3-1.
the circulation of blood to and from the lungs. Unoxygenated blood from the right ventricle flows through the right and left pulmonary arteries to the right and left lungs. After entering the lungs, the branches subdivide, finally emerging as capillaries which surround the alveoli and release the carbon dioxide in exchange for a fresh supply of oxygen. The capillaries unite gradually and assume the characteristics of veins. These veins join to form the pulmonary veins, which return the oxygenated blood to the left atrium. See also circulatory system
pulmonary function tests
tests used to evaluate lung mechanics, gas exchange, pulmonary blood flow, and blood gases and pH. They are used to evaluate patients in the diagnosis of pulmonary disease, assessment of disease development, or evaluation of the risk of pulmonary complications from surgery.
. The total lung capacity (TLC) is divided into four volumes. The tidal volume (VT
) is the volume inhaled or exhaled in normal quiet breathing. The inspiratory reserve volume (IRV) is the maximum volume that can be inhaled following a normal quiet inhalation. The expiratory reserve volume (ERV) is the maximum volume that can be exhaled following a normal quiet exhalation. The residual volume (RV) is the volume remaining in the lungs following a maximal exhalation. The vital capacity (VC) is the maximum volume that can be exhaled following a maximal inhalation; VC = IRV + VT
+ ERV. The inspiratory capacity (IC) is the maximum volume that can be inhaled following a normal quiet exhalation; IC = IRV + VT
. The functional residual capacity (FRC) is the volume remaining in the lungs following a normal quiet exhalation; FRC = ERV + RV.
The vital capacity and its components are measured using a spirometer
, which measures the volumes of air inhaled and exhaled. The functional residual capacity is usually measured by the helium dilution method using a closed spirometry system. A known amount of helium is introduced into the system at the end of a normal quiet exhalation. When the helium equilibrates throughout the volume of the system, which is equal to the FRC plus the volume of the spirometer and tubing, the FRC is determined from the helium concentration. This test may underestimate the FRC of patients with emphysema. The FRC can be determined quickly and more accurately by body plethysmography
. The residual volume and total lung capacity are determined from the functional reserve capacity.
Forced Vital Capacity (FVC). In the forced vital capacity maneuver, the patient exhales as forcefully and rapidly as possible, beginning at maximal exhalation. Several parameters are determined from the spirogram. The forced vital capacity is the total volume of air exhaled during the maneuver; it is normally equal to the vital capacity. The forced expiratory volume (FEV) is the volume expired during a specified time period from the beginning of the test. The times used are 0.5, 1, 2, and 3 seconds; corresponding parameters are FEV0.5, FEV1.0, FEV2.0, and FEV3.0. The maximal expiratory flow is the slope of the line connecting the points where 200 ml and 1200 ml have been exhaled; it is also called FEF200–1200 (forced expiratory flow). The maximal midexpiratory flow is the slope of the line connecting the points where 25 per cent and 75 per cent of the forced vital capacity have been exhaled; it is also called FEF25–75%.
Maximal Voluntary Ventilation (MVV). This is the maximal volume of air that can be breathed by the patient, expressed in liters per minute; it was formerly called maximal breathing capacity. The patient breathes as rapidly and deeply as possible for 12 to 15 seconds and the volume exhaled is determined by spirometry.
Predicted Values. Because the results of pulmonary function tests vary with size and age, the normal values are calculated using prediction equations or nomograms, which give the normal value for a specific age, height, and sex. The prediction equations are derived using linear regression on the data from a population of normal subjects. The observed values are usually reported as a percentage of the predicted value.
. These tests provide evidence of impairment of ventilatory function; they do not point to specific disease processes. Abnormal test results may show either an obstructive or a restrictive pattern; sometimes both are present.
The Obstructive Pattern.
This pattern occurs when there is airway obstruction from any cause, as in asthma, bronchitis, emphysema, or advanced bronchiectasis; these conditions are grouped together in the nonspecific term chronic obstructive pulmonary disease
. In this pattern, the residual volume is increased and the PV/TLC ratio is markedly increased. Owing to increased airway resistance, the flow rates are decreased. The FEV/FVC ratios, maximal midexpiratory flow, and maximal expiratory flow are all decreased; FEV1.0
/FVC is less than 75 per cent.
The Restrictive Pattern. This pattern occurs when there is a loss of lung tissue or when lung expansion is limited as a result of decreased compliance of the lung or thorax or of muscular weakness. This pattern occurs in conditions such as pectus excavatum, myasthenia gravis, diffuse idiopathic interstitial fibrosis, and space-occupying lesions (tumors, effusions). The vital capacity and forced vital capacity are less than 80 per cent of the predicted value, but the FEV/FVC ratios are normal. The total lung capacity is decreased and the RV/TLC ratio is normal.
pulmonary vein any of the four large veins (two right and two left branches) that carry oxygenated blood from the lungs to the left atrium of the heart. See anatomic Table of Veins in the Appendices.
pertaining to the lungs, or to the pulmonary artery. See also lung
causes a syndrome of chronic toxemia, cough, loss of body weight. Careful auscultation may elicit squeaky rales around the lesions. See also caudal
vena caval thrombosis, aspiration
basic structural unit of the lung parenchyma; the gas exchange unit, supplied by a single terminal bronchiole and includes branches of the terminal bronchiole, alveolar ducts, alveolar sacs, alveoli and associated blood vessels. A pulmonary lobule consists of many acini.
incompatible with life; found only in fetal or neonatal necropsy specimens.
pulmonary alveolar microlithiasis pulmonary alveolar parenchyma
include epithelial cells (pneumonocytes or pneumocytes), alveolar capillary endothelial cells, and interstitial cells (fibroblasts) and alveolar macrophages.
pulmonary alveolar proteinosis
a disease of unknown etiology marked by chronic filling of the alveoli with a proteinaceous, lipid-rich, granular material consisting of surfactant and the debris of necrotic cells.
pulmonary artery wedge pressure pulmonary bed
the network of capillaries in lung tissue.
see ovine pulmonary adenomatosis (below).
the circulation of blood to and from the lungs. Deoxygenated blood from the right ventricle flows through the right and left pulmonary arteries to the right and left lung. After entering the lungs, the branches subdivide, finally emerging as capillaries which surround the alveoli and release the carbon dioxide in exchange for oxygen. The capillaries unite gradually and assume the characteristics of veins. These veins join to form the pulmonary veins, which return the oxygenated blood to the left atrium. See also circulatory
a measure of the ability of the lung to distend in response to pressure without disruption. Expressed as the unit volume of change in the lung per unit of pressure. Compliance or distensibility of the lung is increased in conditions such as emphysema in which the lung distends more readily, and is decreased in fibrotic conditions in which the lung distends with difficulty. See also compliance
caused by engorgement of the pulmonary vascular bed and it may precede pulmonary edema when the intravascular fluid escapes into the parenchyma and the alveoli. There is a loss of air space and the development of respiratory embarrassment.
may be congenital or acquired, caused by trauma, parasites (Paragonimus spp.), or associated with bronchiectasis. Rarely, metastatic tumors cavitate forming cysts.
pulmonary defense mechanisms
include aerodynamic filtration in nasal cavities, sneezing, local nasal antibody, laryngeal and cough reflexes, mucociliary transport mechanisms, alveolar macrophages, systemic and local antibody systems.
an effusion of serous fluid into the pulmonary interstitial tissues and alveoli. Preceded by pulmonary congestion (see above). If the extravascular exudation is sufficiently severe a critical level of hypoxia may be reached. The breathing will then be labored, the normal breath sounds on auscultation may be absent, and a frothy nasal discharge, often blood-tinged, may appear. At this stage the animal's life is about to terminate.
obstruction of the pulmonary artery or one of its branches by an embolus. The embolus usually is a blood clot swept into circulation from a large peripheral vein.
Signs vary greatly, depending on the extent to which the lung is involved. Simple, uncomplicated embolism produces such cardiopulmonary signs as dyspnea, tachypnea, persistent cough, pleuritic pain and hemoptysis. On rare occasions the cardiopulmonary signs may be acute, occurring suddenly and quickly producing cyanosis and shock. A septic embolus can lead to local pulmonary abscess or an extension to pneumonia as in caudal vena caval syndrome. See also caudal
vena caval thrombosis, pulmonary abscess (above).
pulmonary eosinophilic granulomatosis
a lesion common in heartworm disease; eosinophiles and neutrophils surround trapped microfilariae causing nodules as large as 3 inches diameter. May be preceded by lesions of allergic pneumonitis.
exercise-induced pulmonary hemorrhage
traces of blood can be found in about 60% of horses after racing. Less than 1% of these bleed from the nostrils. See also epistaxis
pulmonary function tests
tests used to evaluate lung mechanics, gas exchange, pulmonary blood flow and blood acid-base balance. Pulmonary function testing is used to detect emphysema and chronic obstructive bronchitis at an early stage.
as distinct from hemothorax, is recognized because of a syndrome of dyspnea, increased lung density radiographically, and hemorrhagic anemia. If a large vessel ruptures into an abscess cavity there is usually a massive hemoptysis and instant death. Frothy blood-stained nasal discharge is an indication of pulmonary edema rather than of pulmonary hemorrhage. See also exercise-induced pulmonary hemorrhage (above).
pulmonary hypertrophic osteoarthropathy pulmonary hypoplasia
a congenital defect resulting in decreased lung development.
see pulmonary infarction
, pulmonary embolus (above).
pulmonary infiltration with eosinophilia (PIE) pulmonary malformation
includes accessory lungs, pulmonary hypoplasia, pulmonary agenesis, congenital pulmonary cysts, endodermal heteroplasia, respiratory distress syndrome, neonatal maladjustment syndrome, immotile cilia syndrome.
includes aspergillosis, mortierellosis, blastomycosis, cryptococcosis, coccidioidomycosis.
many types are recorded in all species but the prevalence is very low in food animals. A common site for metastases in companion animals. Characterized clinically by decreased exercise tolerance, progressive dyspnea, chronic cough and emaciation. Most diagnoses result from radiographic examination of the thorax for secondary growths.
neurogenic pulmonary edema
results from head trauma, central nervous system lesions and toxins, which may cause increased pulmonary blood pressure and alteration to sympathetic innervation leading to fluid leakage from vessels.
overriding pulmonary artery ovine pulmonary adenomatosis
a very chronic progressive pneumonia of sheep and goats caused by a retrovirus. Dyspnea, emaciation and a profuse nasal discharge are the cardinal signs, but coughing is not evident. The disease is always fatal. It is of great importance if it occurs in flocks that are housed for long periods. Characteristically the extensive lung involvement includes large areas of neoplastic tissue. Called also jaagsiekte, pulmonary carcinomatosis.
re-expansion pulmonary edema
edema, emphysematous bullae and serosanguinous fluid in the airways with generalized pulmonary capillary endothelial damage; associated with chronic pulmonary collapse and removal of pleural effusions or pneumothorax with rapid re-expansion.
traumatic, especially when there is rib fracture, or spontaneous due to coughing and a weak parenchyma. The most common cause of pneumothorax.
pulmonary thromboembolic disease
thromboembolism causing blockage of large sections of the pulmonary vascular bed will result in at least temporary severe dyspnea. It may also lead to right heart congestive failure, i.e. cor pulmonale.
the pocket-like structure that guards the orifice between the right ventricle and the pulmonary artery.
pulmonary valve stenosis
causes right ventricular hypertrophy and a poststenotic dilatation of the pulmonary artery. There is a systolic murmur and thrill on the left side of the chest. A common congenital defect in dogs.
the large vein (right and left branches) that carries oxygenated blood from the lungs to the left atrium of the heart.
Patient discussion about pulmonary
Q. LUNG CANCER how do you get it?
A. Lung cancer is one of the most common cancers in the world. It is a leading cause of cancer death in men and women in the United States.
Cigarette smoking causes most lung cancers. The more cigarettes you smoke per day and the earlier you started smoking, the greater your risk of lung cancer. High levels of pollution, radiation and asbestos exposure may also increase risk. Lately researchers connect this lung cancer with genetic factors.
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Q. How much do I have to smoke to get lung cancer? If I only smoke 1 cigarette a day will I get cancer?
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Q. Heart serious, Lungs swollen. My brother Bennet, seventeen, and it is birthday tomorrow. But I guess he already got his seventeenth birthday present: lupus.
He is recently diagnosed with lupus, yet some complications are still under-diagnosed. He have always had huge aspirations. Now, as my health deterioates at a weird rate, he can't walk around. His heart is in serious condition, his lungs are swollen, so are his joints. His voice is almost not there and he is, thinking about his eighteenth birthday.
His face is swollen, as some gland in his neck has bloated and somehow he don't enjoy what he see in the mirror he says. He is very sensitive to sunlight and so he stay in for all day and when he decide to go out, it is after 8 or 9 p.m.
He is despondent, yes. Because he see his dreams shattering, his family life is breaking apart and he feels as if he is getting more useless EVERY single day. How long will he continue?
Maybe another thirty years...maybe not another day.
Could anyone help him to SURV
A. Sorry to hear about your brother being so miserable with his symptoms, and the apparent distress it understandably is causing you.More discussions about pulmonary
With sunlight bothering him, that is called photophobia and is a symptom of certain types of lupus, or can be an effect from a medication he may be taking. The swelling on his neck may be due to hyperthyroidism, asthma, or an allergic reaction perhaps to prednisone, which is given to lupus patients.
You should get your bother to see a doctor soon, if you have not already. You don't want him to stop breathing or anything.