puerperal psychosis


Also found in: Dictionary, Thesaurus, Encyclopedia, Wikipedia.
Related to puerperal psychosis: war neurosis

post·par·tum psy·cho·sis

an acute mental disorder with depression in the mother following childbirth.
Synonym(s): puerperal psychosis

puerperal psychosis

psychosis

(si-ko'sis) plural.psychoses [ psycho- + -osis]
A mental disorder in which there is severe loss of contact with reality, evidenced by delusions, hallucinations, disorganized speech patterns, and bizarre or catatonic behavior. Psychotic disorders are common features of schizophrenia, bipolar disorders, and some affective disorders. They can also result from substance abuse (e.g., the use of hallucinogens), substance withdrawal (e.g., delirium tremens), or side effects of some prescription drugs.

Symptoms

In psychotic states patients may express unusual ideas (e.g., that they can read the minds of others, send radio messages directly to God or inanimate objects, travel to distant galaxies). These ideas are called delusions. Psychosis also is marked by patient reports of hearing voices (auditory hallucinations) or seeing objects or persons not visible to others (visual hallucinations). Auditory hallucinations are hallmarks of schizophrenic and manic states, while visual hallucinations are characteristic of drug intoxication or withdrawal. Disturbances in thought content and form, perception, affect, sense of self, volition, interpersonal relationships, and psychomotor behavior occur. Thorough physical and psychiatric examinations rule out organic causes of the patient symptoms and establish the diagnosis.

Treatment

Treatment goals focus on meeting the patient’s physical and psychosocial needs, and usually combine drug therapies with behavioral therapies, long-term psychotherapy, psychosocial rehabilitation, and/or vocational counseling, requiring use of community resources. Patients with psychosis are treated effectively with neuroleptic drugs (which appear to work by blocking postsynaptic dopamine receptors), such as haloperidol, risperidone, or chlorpromazine. Side effects of some of these medications include dystonic reactions and tardive dyskinesia. The newer agents produce fewer of these extrapyramidal symptoms. Treatment drugs also have sedative, anticholinergic, and orthostatic hypotension effects, and about 1% of patients taking these agents experience neuroleptic malignant syndrome (life-threatening fever, muscle rigidity, and altered level of consciousness).

Patient care

The psychotic patient should be treated gently and with respect. A safe environment should be maintained, with suicide precautions instituted if needed. Trusting relationships are gradually developed, while avoiding promotion of dependence. Engaging the patient in reality-oriented activities that involve human contact and employing reality-orientation is helpful. Attempts to correct delusional thinking should be avoided because delusions are resistant to logical argument, and discussion about them may be misinterpreted. Because psychotic patients behave violently on occasion, careful practitioners eschew confrontation with them, and obtain immediate help to protect the safety of all involved.

CAUTION!

1. Unfamiliar religious experiences and rituals may have all the hallmarks of psychosis when viewed by individuals from different cultures. What constitutes an especially meaningful experience in one society may be recognized as psychosis by another. 2. When assisting a psychotic patient, most clinicians sit close to a door, so that if they feel the need to leave the room quickly, they can do so unimpeded.

Clinicians need to be honest and dependable, and should never make promises that cannot be kept. The family needs to be involved in therapies, taught to recognize adverse drug effects and signs of relapse, as well as ways to manage patient symptoms. Patients are taught to manage their drug regimens, and advised to report any adverse reactions they experience, but not to discontinue a drug without specific direction from the primary care provider. If blood testing is required, the patient is taught when and where this monitoring will take place. If slow-release formulations are used, the patient needs to know when to return for the next dose.

alcoholic psychosis

Loss of contact with reality that results from acute or chronic alcohol use. Examples are pathological intoxication, delirium tremens, Korsakoff's psychosis, and acute hallucinosis.
See: acute alcoholism; acute alcoholic hallucinosis; delirium tremens; intoxication; Korsakoff's syndrome

depressive psychosis

Psychosis characterized by extreme depression, melancholia, and feelings of unworthiness.

drug psychosis

Psychosis caused by intoxication.

exhaustion psychosis

An acute state of confusion and delirium that occurs in relation to extreme fatigue, chronic illness, prolonged sleeplessness, or tension.

functional psychosis

A psychosis in which there is no apparent pathology of the central nervous system.

gestational psychosis

Psychosis that occurs during pregnancy.

involutional psychosis

Psychosis occurring during the period of bodily and intellectual decline.

manic depressive psychosis

Bipolar disorder.

organic psychosis

Psychosis induced by structural brain changes. Emotional instability, irritability, angry outbursts, and inattention are typical symptoms. At any time in the course of the disease, memory, comprehension, ideation, and orientation may become defective. Possible causes include alcohol, narcotics, trauma, syphilis, drugs, poisons, chronic infections, encephalitis, and brain tumors, among many others.

polyneuritic psychosis

Koraskoff's syndrome.

postinfectious psychosis

A psychosis following an infectious disease such as meningitis, pneumonia, or typhoid fever.

postpartum psychosis

A psychosis that develops during the 6 months following childbirth, the highest incidence being in the third to sixth day after delivery through the first month postpartum. The symptoms and signs include hallucinations, delusions, preoccupation with death, self-mutilation, infanticide, distorted reality, and interpersonal dependency. Therapies used to treat this condition include estrogens, electroconvulsive therapies, lithium, and neuroleptic drugs.
Synonym: puerperal psychosis See: depression, postpartum

puerperal psychosis

Postpartum psychosis.

senile psychosis

Psychosis in which onset occurs in an aged individual. This term is rarely used in the English-language health care literature but remains in use in non–English-speaking countries.

situational psychosis

Psychosis due to excessive stress in an unbearable environmental situation.

steroid-induced psychosis

, steroid p.
A psychosis that follows the administration of corticosteroids (e.g., prednisone or methylprednisolone) and cannot be clearly ascribed to another cause. The psychosis may remit after steroids are withheld or may respond to neuroleptic drugs or electroconvulsive therapy.

toxic psychosis

Psychosis brought on by intoxication.

traumatic psychosis

Psychosis or schizophrenia-like illnesses occurring in people who have suffered traumatic brain injury.

puerperal

pertaining to a puerpera or to the puerperium.

puerperal fever
puerperal laminitis
puerperal metritis
infection of the uterus in a puerperal female.
puerperal psychosis
1. whelping bitches sometimes display frenzied, destructive behavior and aggression.
2. sows, see farrowing hysteria.
puerperal tetanus
see tetanus.
puerperal tetany
see puerperal tetany.
References in periodicals archive ?
In conversation he mentioned he was looking for a research assistant, both to help him find women who have suffered from puerperal psychosis and to keep in touch with them about the research projects being carried out.
A family history of manic depression, for instance, means a woman has a 50 per cent chance of developing puerperal psychosis.
Researcher Dr Ian Jones said: "If we can identify the genes involved it will help us work out the physiological and biological mechanisms that cause puerperal psychosis.
Victim Mrs Jackie Benjamin, co-ordinator of Action on Puerperal Psychosis, told the conference how she believed she had discovered the meaning of life after giving birth.
A Birmingham woman, Mrs Jackie Benjamin, has also formed a support group, Action on Puerperal Psychosis, for women who have suffered from the illness.
Puerperal psychosis is very rare and extreme form of depression which only develops in one or two women in every 1,000.
The special needs teacher from Runcorn, Cheshire, who is now 42, had a life-threatening form of the illness called puerperal psychosis.
She was suffering from the most severe and potentially life-threatening form of the illness, puerperal psychosis.
It can range from a short attack to puerperal psychosis, a rare mental condition which needs hospital treatment to prevent the mother hurting herself or her baby.