In previous reports of psittacine
birds with gastrointestinal foreign bodies, blood test results were nonspecific and included leukocytosis characterized by a heterophilia and abnormal plasma protein concentrations.
Histopathological survey of protozoa, helminths and acarids of imported and local psittacine
and passerine birds in Japan.
birds receive a balanced, medicated feed ration containing 21% chlortetracycline (CTC) with [is less than]0.
11) However, cryptococcosis has been reported in several psittacine
and nonpsittacine birds, including a Pesquet's parrot (Psittrichas fulgidus), Major Mitchell's cockatoo (Cacatua leadbeateri), green-winged macaw (Ara chloropterus), Moluccan cockatoo (Cacatua moluccensis), thick-billed parrot (Rhynchopsitta pachyrhyncha), African grey parrot, long-billed corella (Cacatua tenuirostris), North Island kiwi (Apteryx australis mantelli), and 2 pigeons (Gallicolumba crinigera, Goura victoria beccari), often with no evidence of preceding immune compromise.
Our findings emphasize the risk for avipoxvirus among captive psittacines
; their relevance for psittacine
rehabilitation and conservation may be considerable regarding pathogenicity.
Laminosioptes cysticola has been previously described in passerines (FAIN, 1981; STEWART, 1963), a psittacine
(FAIN, 1981) and pigeons (FAIN, 1981; TORO, 1999), both playing roles in harbouring and dissemination.
According to the standard text book on avian medicine, The Manual of Parrot, Budgerigars and other Psittacine
Birds, edited by CJ Price: "Grit is essential for the grinding of the softened and partially digested seeds entering the gizzard.
They took her to a vet in Liverpool who, after a DNA test, gave the Mercer's the bad news that Snowy was suffering from PBFD - Psittacine
Beak and Feather Disease.
viruses and 5 passerine viruses have since been described (3,4).
Relevant books include: BSAVA Manual of Psittacine
Birds, edited by Peter H Benyon, and The Ultimate Encyclopaedia of Caged and Aviary Birds by David Alderton.
Bornaviruses are considered to be the causative agent of proventricular dilatation disease (PDD) in psittacine