Duchenne muscular dystrophy(redirected from pseudohypertrophic dystrophy)
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the most common childhood muscular dystrophy, with onset usually before age 6 years. Characterized by symmetric weakness and wasting of first the pelvic and crural muscles and then the pectoral and proximal upper extremity muscles; pseudohypertrophy of some muscles, especially the calf; heart involvement; sometimes mild mental retardation; progressive course and early death, usually in adolescence. X-linked inheritance (affects males and transmitted by females).
Duchenne muscular dystrophy(do͞o-shĕn′)
A severe form of muscular dystrophy that begins in early childhood and almost exclusively affects males, characterized by progressive weakening of the muscles and usually leading to death from respiratory or cardiac failure. It is caused by lack of the protein dystrophin in muscle cells as a result of a recessive genetic mutation on the X chromosome.
Duchenne muscular dystrophyAn X-R disease caused by a deficiency of a muscle protein, dystrophin, which affects 1:3500 ♂, resulting in progressive muscular atrophy, wasting, and death by age 20, often related to respiratory–due to compromised diaphragm activity, or cardiac failure; calf and deltoid muscles display the typical finding of pseudohypertrophy. See Climbing up on oneself, Dystrophin, Pseudohypertrophy.
Duchenne muscular dystrophyA hereditary, X-linked RECESSIVE muscle disorder affecting males almost exclusively. It begins in the first three years of life and first affects the legs and buttocks. Usually, the muscles appear larger than normal (pseudo-hypertrophy) but are in fact very weak. The condition spreads to affect other muscles and death is usual between the age of 20 and 30. See also DYSTROPHIN. (Guillaume Benjamin Amand Duchenne, 1805–75, French neurologist).
Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD)
The most severe form of muscular dystrophy, DMD usually affects young boys and causes progressive muscle weakness, usually beginning in the legs.
Mentioned in: Muscular Dystrophy
1. pertaining to a muscle.
2. having well developed muscles.
due usually to neuronal or disuse atrophy on one side of the body.
wasting away of muscle or a muscle because of reduction in cross sectional area of muscle fibers; may be due to disease of the muscle or its nerve supply, or to disuse or nutritional inadequacy. See also hereditary spinal muscular atrophy (below).
varies in severity from degeneration of only the myofibrils or degeneration of the myofibrils plus sarcoplasm, leaving satellite cells and myonuclei and sarcolemmal laminae unaffected, or further levels of increasing severity.
destruction or congenital absence of the motor nerve supply to the muscle; manifested by paralysis and atrophy and absence of spinal reflexes.
muscular denervation atrophy
progressive shrinkage of muscle fibers when the nerve supply to the muscle is severed.
Duchenne muscular dystrophy
an X-linked inherited disease in humans, which is believed to be due to a deficiency of a membrane-associated protein, dystrophin. An analogous disease has been identified in Irish terriers, Golden retrievers and mice.
any degenerative muscular disorder due to faulty nutrition of the muscles. Causes muscle weakness, liberation of myoglobin into the circulation from skeletal muscle and subsequent wasting and possible contracture. In humans there are a group of genetically determined, painless, degenerative myopathies that are progressively crippling because muscles are gradually weakened and eventually atrophy. In food animals the principal disease in this group is enzootic muscular dystrophy caused by a nutritional deficiency of selenium and/or vitamin E. Sporadic cases of muscular dystrophy of unknown etiology occur rarely in dogs.
during brief, intense exercise probably due in large part to the accumulation of lactate.
hereditary spinal muscular atrophy
progressive degeneration of the motor cells of the spinal cord. It is an inherited, slowly progressive flaccid tetraparesis from an early age, with muscular atrophy. Occurs as an autosomal recessive trait in Swedish lapland dogs, a dominant trait in Brittany spaniels. Also reported in German shepherd dogs, English pointers and Rottweilers. See also hereditary neuronal abiotrophy of Swedish Lapland dogs. In cattle, inherited as an autosomal recessive trait and reported in Brown Swiss, Holstein-Friesian and Red Danish calves with an onset at 3 to 8 weeks of age. There is hind limb ataxia progressing to recumbancy. Associated with lesions in the lower motor neurons of the cervical and lumbar spinal cord.
hernia through an enclosing muscle sheath.
an increase in the size of a muscle mass due to an increase in the number of muscle cells. See also myofiber hyperplasia, ileal muscular hypertrophy.
an increase in the size of a muscle mass due to an increase in the length and thickness of each muscle cell without any increase in the number of cells.
muscular ischemic necrosis
see ischemic myonecrosis.
ectopic deposition of minerals in muscle. See mineralization.
myelopathic muscular atrophy
muscular atrophy due to a lesion of the spinal cord, as in spinal muscular atrophy.
nutritional muscular dystrophy
see muscular dystrophy (above).
muscular parasitic diseases
includes cysticercosis, hepatozoonosis, Neosprum caninum myositis, sarcocystosis, toxoplasmosis, trichenellosis.
muscle spindles which respond to stretch.
excess fat deposits in muscle; a problem only at meat hygiene inspection.
muscular vascular occlusive syndrome
see ischemic myonecrosis.
X-linked muscular dystrophy
see Duchenne muscular dystrophy (above).