These sex-related differences in home-range size were similarly observed in another protogynous
serranid, Pseudanthias squamipinnis (Shapiro, 1987).
As monandric, protogynous
hermaphrodites, California Sheephead can transition from a reproductively functional female to a functional male during the course of a lifespan in response to social factors (Warner 1975; Adreani et al.
Around 32% of the species are protandrous; 7%, protogynous
California sheephead are monandric, protogynous
hermaphrodites that are targeted by anglers, spearfishermen and the recently developed live fishery to supply Asian seafood markets (Adreani et al.
They are protogynous
hermaphrodites that form harems of 2-4 females for each male (Moyer 1979; Debelius 1998).
Low density spawning aggregations covering large areas may select for protogynous
strategies in populations within San Diego Bay and the northern Gulf of California (Hovey and Allen 2000) because terminal males can dominate spawning activities (Allen et al.
Plantago major is protogynous
only, and this mechanism seems to be rather ineffective in preventing self-fertilization, because populations of this species are usually highly homozygous (Van Dijk & Van Delden, 1981).
Stock assessment of protogynous
fish: Evaluating measures of spawning biomass used to estimate biological reference points.
Sexual differences and normal protogynous
hermaphroditism in the atlantic sea bass, Centropristes striatus.
For example, Shmida and Leschner (in review) found that, within a single season, the petals of the protogynous
crown anemone (Anemone coronaria) produce an ultraviolet-reflecting ring and grow larger when the flower is in the male phase.
Reproduction in the protogynous
black grouper (Mycteroperca bonaci (Poey)) from the southern Gulf of Mexico.
Sex determination was not attempted because the northern Gulf of California population of spotted sand bass is known to exhibit protogynous
hermaphroditism (Hastings 1989; Hovey and Allen 2000).