Role of steroid hormone in sex change of Protogynous
Reproduction in the protogynous
black grouper (Mycteroperca bonaci (Poey)) from the southern Gulf of Mexico.
The majority of protogynous
(female-to-male sex-change) species, including the study species, exhibit a size-based social dominance hierarchy whereby dominant individuals influence the behavior of subordinate individuals (Cole 1984; Ross 1990).
A previous report had described both ovarian and testicular features in the immature gonad and a diagnosis of protogynous
hermaphroditism (Corsten-Hulsmans and Corsten, 1974).
Terminal phase males stimulate ovarian function and inhibit sex change in the protogynous
wrasse Thalassoma duperrey.
Li GL, Liu XC, Zhang Y, Lin HR (2006) Gonadal development, aromatase activity and P450 aromatase gene expression during sex inversion of protogynous
red-spotted grouper Epinephelus akaara (Temminck and Schlegel) after implantation of the aromatase inhibitor, fadrozole.
During this scented first day of flowering, the protogynous
flowers attract beetles belonging to the Nitidulidae (Colopterus spp.
The male polymorphism is the consequence of a distinctive reproductive strategy involving protogynous
hermaphroditism in some if not all species (Lang 1973; Sieg 1983; Ishimaru, 1985; Larsen 2005).
There is great reproductive plasticity (gonochoristic, protogynous
, protandry, and hermaphroditic) among fishes and thus a large variation in steroidal influences on sex characteristics.
Both conditions are frequent in tropical American palms, such as in Bactridinae, with Aiphanes being protandrous (Listabarth, 1992b), while Acrocomia, Astrocaryum, Bactris and Desmoncus are protogynous
(Scariot & Lleras, 1991; Listabarth, 1992b; Henderson et al.
Many self-compatible species have special adaptations to prevent the automatic self-pollination, such as species herkogamous, protandrous and protogynous
Less frequently, the initial phase of a young population is female, and individuals are protogynous
(Coe 1943), such as the mussel Mytella charruana, in which females are more abundant than males in all size classes (Stenyakina et al.