protein synthesis


Also found in: Dictionary, Wikipedia.

pro·tein syn·the·sis

the process in which individual amino acids, whether of exogenous or endogenous origin, are connected to each other in peptide linkage in a specific order dictated by the sequence of nucleotides in DNA; this governing sequence is conveyed to the synthesizing apparatus in the ribosomes by mRNA, formed by base-pairing on the DNA template.

protein synthesis

The manufacturing of proteins from amino acids. Within cells this process is guided by the specific sequence of nucleotides in DNA.

protein synthesis

The construction of protein molecules from AMINO ACIDS. This occurs in the cell CYTOPLASM on the basis of the GENETIC CODE in the DNA. Sections of DNA that code for the particular protein are first transcribed to MESSENGER RNA and this passes out of the cell nucleus to the cytoplasm. There, one or more ribosomes attach themselves to one end of the mRNA molecule and move along it to effect transcription, using, in the process, the sequence of RNA bases to indicate which amino acids should be selected from the cell pool and in what order. In this way the correct amino acids are linked together to form polypeptides and these are then joined to form the particular protein.

protein synthesis

a complex anabolic process occurring in all cells, by which genes control the precise structure of proteins manufactured in the cell. The following summary of events refers to a EUKARYOTE cell:
  1. (a) DNA molecules in the chromosomes of the nucleus carry specific messages about how proteins are to be constructed.
  2. (b) the DNA of each gene carries instructions about one protein chain (see ONE GENE/ONE ENZYME HYPOTHESIS).
  3. (c) the two polynucleotide chains of the DNA molecule separate and messenger RNA nucleotides become attached in complementary pairing, the process being called TRANSCRIPTION.
  4. (d) the mRNA molecule leaves the DNA which reforms a double helix.
  5. (e) mature mRNA (see RNA PROCESSING) leaves the nucleus via pores in the NUCLEAR MEMBRANE and enters the cytoplasm where it becomes attached to one or more RIBOSOMES (See also POLYRIBOSOMES) near the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM.
  6. (f) with the aid of transfer RNA, TRANSLATION of the message in the mRNA takes place, with the formation of a POLYPEPTIDE CHAIN which later becomes coiled (see PROTEIN, POST-TRANSLATIONAL MODIFICATIONS).
References in periodicals archive ?
The milk provides a source of easily digestible and high quality protein, which can promote protein synthesis and training adaptations, making this an attractive recovery option for those who refuel at home," she added.
is creating opportunities for the development of novel protein-based therapeutics and vaccines using a proprietary cell-free protein synthesis technology.
FAB's proprietary cell free protein synthesis technology was developed by James R.
XOMA's proprietary TIF technology covers bacterial expression of humanized antibody fragments and other antigen-binding domains and the ability to clone and express enzymes that inhibit cellular protein synthesis.
The body's pulsed secretion of growth hormone can trigger metabolic changes, such as increased protein synthesis, Hartman notes.
In children and adults suffering severe burn injury, administration of SomatoKine demonstrated a significant improvement in muscle protein synthesis and a significant reduction in the inflammatory response associated with the trauma.
The enzyme binds to one part of a specific piece of host transfer RNA, so called because it transports amino acids for protein synthesis.
Pulsed magnetic fields can speed up protein synthesis even in cells stripped of their outer membranes, report biophysicists who demonstrated this effect with bacteria.
CollaGenex currently sells Periostat(R) as the first and only pharmaceutical to treat periodontal disease by inhibiting the enzymes that destroy periodontal support tissues and by enhancing bone protein synthesis.
A year ago, he reported studies demonstrating that a chemical that inhibits protein synthesis also prevents sea snails from remembering a training cycle for more than one hour.
In studies in children and adults with severe burn injury, SomatoKine treatment resulted in increased muscle protein synthesis and reduced inflammatory response.
Adds biochemist Bruce Merrifield of Rockefeller University in New York City, who won a 1984 Nobel prize for his work on protein synthesis, "If others can reproduce and expand on this work, it will be one of the most important achievements in biology or chemistry.