prosthetics


Also found in: Dictionary, Thesaurus, Encyclopedia, Wikipedia.

prosthesis

 [pros-the´sis] (pl. prosthe´ses) (Gr.)
an artificial substitute for a missing part, such as an eye, limb, or tooth, used for functional or cosmetic reasons, or both.
Artificial Limb. Advances in the field of surgical amputation and the art of designing artificial limbs have made it possible for persons who have lost a limb to be equipped with a prosthesis that functions so efficiently, and so closely resembles the original in appearance, that they can resume normal activities with the disability passing almost unnoticed.
Materials Used in the Prosthesis. A variety of materials can be used for the manufacture of artificial limbs. Wood, especially willow, is the most popular because it is comparatively light and resilient, and is easily shaped. Aluminum or an aluminum alloy is used when lightness is particularly desirable, such as in a limb for an aged person. Plastic limbs are also available. Leather and various metals are used for reinforcement and control.
Powering the Limb. Most artificial limbs are powered by the muscles, either those remaining in the residual limb or other available muscles. The muscles of the residual limb often can be considerably strengthened by physical therapy. Muscle power can be reinforced by means of springs, straps, gears, locks, levers, or, in some cases, hydraulic mechanisms.
The Artificial Lower Limb. The most commonly fitted artificial limb is the knee-jointed leg, used by persons whose lower limbs have been amputated above the knee. This prosthesis is powered by the hip and remaining thigh muscles, which kick the leg forward. The key points in such a limb are the socket, where it fits onto the residual limb, the knee, and the ankle. The possibility of walking with a normal gait depends primarily on the successful alignment of the socket joint; the knee usually consists of a joint centered slightly behind that of the natural leg, as this has been found to afford greater stability; sometimes the ankle joint is omitted and flexibility of the ankle achieved by the use of a rubber foot.
The Artificial Upper Limb. The choice of a particular artificial upper limb depends largely on the person's occupation. There are many different types, ranging from the purely functional, which will enable a person to perform heavy work, to the purely cosmetic, which aims only at looking as natural as possible. Those persons whose work requires them to do heavy lifting are often fitted with a “pegarm,” a short limb without an elbow joint, which is easily controlled and has great leverage.
The Artificial Hand. There are many different types of artificial hands. Many artificial upper limbs are so constructed that they can be fitted with a selection of different hands, depending on the type of work to be done. Researchers generally agree that the various types of hooks offer the greatest functional efficiency. These reproduce the most powerful function of natural hands—the pressure between thumb and forefinger. There are also artificial hands that combine a certain amount of utility with cosmetic value, often by means of a cosmetic glove covering a mechanical hand; others are designed simply for appearance, though they may offer some support as well.

Most hooks and hands are mechanically connected to the opposite shoulder and operated by a shrugging motion. However, a procedure known as kineplasty uses the person's own arm and chest muscles to work the device. In this method, selected muscles are tunneled under by surgery and lined by skin. Pegs adapted to the tunnels can then be made to move an artificial hand mechanism. Kineplasty is used when skill rather than strength is desired.
Protecting the Residual Limb (Stump). In a person with an artificial limb, there is always a danger of irritation or infection. A sock is worn to cover the residual limb, and this should be washed daily; the residual limb itself should also be washed regularly and carefully, particularly between skin folds. When the artificial limb is not being used, the residual limb should be exposed to the air if possible.
Types of lower limb prostheses. A, Below-knee endoskeletal prosthesis. The strength is derived from the inner endoskeleton. B, Below-knee exoskeletal prosthesis. The strength is derived from the outer exoskeleton. C, Above-knee endoskeletal prosthesis. D, Above-knee exoskeletal prosthesis. Exoskeletal (E) and endoskeletal (F) hip disarticulation prostheses. From Myers, 1995.
Angelchik prosthesis a C-shaped silicone device used in the management of reflux esophagitis; it can also be placed around the distal esophagus during a laparotomy. (
Placement of the Angelchik antireflux prosthesis. From Ignatavicius and Workman, 2002.
)
Austin Moore prosthesis a metallic implant used in hip arthroplasty.
Charnley prosthesis an implant for hip arthroplasty consisting of an acetabular cup and a relatively small femoral head component that form a low-friction joint.
penile prosthesis see penile prosthesis.

pros·thet·ics

(pros-thet'iks),
The art and science of making and adjusting artificial parts of the human body. See: anaplastology.

prosthetics

(prŏs-thĕt′ĭks)
n. (used with a sing. verb)
The branch of medicine or surgery that deals with the production and application of artificial body parts.

pros′the·tist (prŏs′thĭ-tĭst) n.

prosthetics

[prosthet′iks]
Etymology: Gk, prosthesis, addition
the design, construction, and attachment of artificial limbs or other systems to assume the function of missing body parts. See also orthotics.

pros·thet·ics

(pros-thet'iks)
The art and science of making and adjusting artificial parts of the human body.

Prosthetics

Mechanical devices that replace missing body parts.
Mentioned in: Osteopathy

pros·thet·ics

(pros-thet'iks)
The art and science of making and adjusting artificial parts of the human body.

prosthetics (prosthet´iks),

n the art and science of supplying, fitting, and servicing artificial replacements for missing parts of the body.
prosthetics, complete denture,
n 1. the restoration of the natural teeth and their associated parts in the dental arch by artificial replacements.
n 2. the phase of dental prosthetics dealing with the restoration of function when one or both dental arches have been rendered edentulous.
prosthetics, dental,
prosthetics, full denture,
n See prosthetics, complete denture.
prosthetics, maxillofacial,
n the branch of prosthodontics concerned with the restoration of stomatognathic and associated facial structures that have been affected by disease, injury, surgery, or congenital defect.
prosthetics, partial denture,
n the dental service that, by replacing one or more but less than all the teeth of a dental arch, avoids the degenerative changes resulting from tooth movement and may thus achieve preventive measures of maximum benefit toward the maintenance of optimal oral health as well as reasonable restoration of dental functions.

prosthetics

the field of knowledge relating to prostheses, their design, use, etc.
References in periodicals archive ?
Presently, orthopedic prosthetic devices global market is driven by technological advancement, increasing in the number of incidence of disabilities, growing rate of chronic and lifestyle disease.
The global dental prosthetics market is segmented as follows: Global Dental Prosthetics Market, by Type Bridges Crowns Veneers Dentures Others (Inlays, Onlays, etc.
On Thursday, she showed off a new prosthetic that will help her reclaim a little bit of her personal style: a ''high-definition'' realistic silicone leg that can be worn with high heels.
To correct this deficiency, on July 8, 1947, all contact representatives (prosthetic) were transferred to Medical Divisions in regional offices; a Prosthetic Applicants Unit under supervision of the Chief, Professional Section, was established in each regional office Medical Division, and a Prosthetic Appliances Section was set up in the medical service of each branch office.
As the need for O&P professionals continues to grow, the Francis Turtle O&P program will work to meet that need as it trains caring, committed and skilled professionals for the field of orthotics and prosthetics.
Besides selling prosthetics, Liberating Technologies, for one, offers 19 kinds of silicone sleeves for artificial limbs to make them seem more natural.
Gonzalez also makes use of prosthetic legs when he isn't playing.
based manufacturer and distributor of primarily upper limb prosthetics for adults and children, likewise identifies a number of positive trends in prosthetics development over recent years.
2011 company shares and distribution shares data for the overall Orthopedic Prosthetics market in each of the aforementioned countries.
Demographics, tooth loss statistics, occurrences of coronal caries and the availability and extent of public sector supported dental care are all factors that directly affect the Asia-Pacific market for dental prosthetics.
Earlier studies have attempted to determine differences between groups of commercially available prosthetic feet to aid in understanding and prescribing these systems [4].
Cresap received his bachelor's degree in orthotics and prosthetics in 1993 from the University of Washington.