prostaglandin


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Related to prostaglandin: Prostaglandin analogue, prostaglandin E1, Prostaglandin E2

prostaglandin

 [pros″tah-glan´din]
any of a group of naturally occurring, chemically related, long-chain hydroxy fatty acids that stimulate contractility of the uterine and other smooth muscle and have the ability to lower blood pressure, regulate acid secretion of the stomach, regulate body temperature and platelet aggregation, and control inflammation and vascular permeability. They also affect the action of certain hormones. First found in semen, they have since been found in cells throughout the body and in menstrual fluid. There are nine types, designated by the letters A to I, the degree of saturation of the side chain of each being designated by subscripts 1, 2, and 3.

Prostaglandins are used clinically to control postpartum hemorrhage, to temporarily manage patent ductus arteriosus, and to treat impotence in men; prostaglandin injections into the amniotic sac, an in-hospital procedure, have been used as an abortion technique in pregnancies after the 16th week. About 30 minutes after an injection of prostaglandin F, contractions begin, and abortion takes place within 19 to 20 hours.

pros·ta·glan·din (PG),

(pros'tă-glan'din),
Any of a class of physiologically active substances present in many tissues, with effects such as vasodilation, vasoconstriction, stimulation of intestinal or bronchial smooth muscle, uterine stimulation, and antagonism to hormones influencing lipid metabolism. Prostaglandins are prostanoic acids with side chains of varying degrees of unsaturation and varying degrees of oxidation. Often abbreviated PGA, PGB, PGC, PGD, etc. with numeric subscripts, according to structure.
[fr. genital fluids and accessory glands where discovered]

prostaglandin

/pros·ta·glan·din/ (-glan´din) any of a group of naturally occurring, chemically related fatty acids that stimulate contractility of the uterine and other smooth muscle and have the ability to lower blood pressure, regulate acid secretion of the stomach, regulate body temperature and platelet aggregation, and control inflammation and vascular permeability; they also affect the action of certain hormones. Nine primary types are labeled A through I, the degree of saturation of the side chain of each being designated by subscripts 1, 2, and 3. The types of prostaglandins are abbreviated PGE2, PGF2α, and so on.
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Cyclooxygenase pathway of prostaglandin and thromboxane synthesis.

prostaglandin

(prŏs′tə-glăn′dĭn)
n.
Any of a group of potent hormonelike substances that are produced in various mammalian tissues, are derived from arachidonic acid, and mediate a wide range of physiological functions, such as control of blood pressure, contraction of smooth muscle, and modulation of inflammation.

prostaglandin (PG)

[pros′təglan′din]
Etymology: Gk, prostates, standing before; L, glans, acorn
one of several potent unsaturated fatty acids that act in exceedingly low concentrations on local target organs. Prostaglandins are produced in small amounts and have a large array of significant effects. Those given in tablets or in solutions for oral or IV use effect changes in vasomotor tone, capillary permeability, smooth muscle tone, aggregation of platelets, endocrine and exocrine functions, and the autonomic and central nervous systems. Some of the pharmacological uses of the prostaglandins are termination of pregnancy and treatment of asthma and gastric hyperacidity.
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Prostaglandin E

pros·ta·glan·din

(pros'tă-glan'din)
Physiologically active substance present in many tissues, with effects such as vasodilation, vasoconstriction, stimulation of intestinal or bronchial smooth muscle, uterine stimulation, and antagonism to hormones influencing lipid metabolism.

Prostaglandin

A hormonelike chemical produced in the body. Prostaglandins have a wide variety of effects, and may be responsible for the production of some types of pain and inflammation.

pros·ta·glan·din

(pros'tă-glan'din)
Any of a class of physiologically active substances present in many tissues, with effects such as vasodilation, vasoconstriction, stimulation of intestinal or bronchial smooth muscle, uterine stimulation, and antagonism to hormones influencing lipid metabolism.

prostaglandin

a group of naturally occurring, chemically related, long-chain hydroxy fatty acids that stimulate contractility of the uterine and other smooth muscle and have the ability to lower blood pressure, regulate acid secretion of the stomach, regulate body temperature and platelet aggregation, and control inflammation and vascular permeability. They also affect the action of certain hormones. First found in semen, they have since been found in cells throughout the body. There are six types, A, B, C, D, E and F, the degree of saturation of the side chain of each being designated by subscripts 1, 2 and 3.
The main use of prostaglandins in veterinary medicine is in the treatment and regulation of activity of the female reproductive tract. The E and F series stimulate myometrial contraction. F2 is luteolytic.

prostaglandin F
promotes platelet aggregation; actively removed from the circulation by the vascular endothelium.
prostaglandin I2
prostaglandin synthase complex
a central enzyme system in the synthesis of prostaglandins.
References in periodicals archive ?
Cyclooxygenase-1 is up-regulated in cervical carcinomas: autocrine/paracrine regulation of cyclooxygenase-2, prostaglandin e receptors, and angiogenic factors by cyclooxygenase-1.
Future studies, potentially testing topical treatments that may target GPR44, can determine whether targeting prostaglandins will benefit woman with AGA as well.
prostaglandin E2 were confirmed by a meta-analysis that included data from this study The meta-analysis also demonstrated that Foley catheter induction was associated with reduced rates of hyper-stimulation (odds ratio, 0.
While it is investigating the two most recent deaths, the FDA has suggested that abortionists and emergency room doctors encountering a chemical abortion patient with nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, or weakness a day or more after taking the prostaglandin should immediately begin a course of antibiotics.
Women in the intra-amniotic prostaglandin group had significantly more episodes of vomiting requiring treatment than those in the oral misoprostol group (on average, 0.
The new investigation proved unequivocally the presence of a prostaglandin ([PGA.
Prostaglandin D2 stops the growth of stem cells that produce hair follicles, George Cotsarelis of the Perelman Center for Advanced Medicine at the University of Pennsylvania in Philadelphia and colleagues report in the March 21 Science Translational Medicine.
In these women, induction with prostaglandins is associated with uterine rupture, they noted, explaining that prostaglandins affect both cervical ripening and contractions simultaneously, whereas the ideal strategy for induction is likely administration of a cervical ripening agent before stimulation of contractions.
These contractions are under the influence of a hormone called prostaglandin, which is why an anti-prostaglandin, such as naproxen will successfully treat menstrual cramps.
It has been hypothesized that prostaglandin synthesis by the prostate becomes less efficient with advancing age, resulting in an exaggerated effect of testosterone (or dihydrotestosterone) on prostate cell growth.
We measured prostaglandin levels in the animals' skin, and when we fed arachidonic acid to the knockout mice, they resumed making these important chemical compounds," he said.