prospective study


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study

 [stud´e]
a careful examination of a phenomenon; see also design.
cohort study prospective study.
cross-sectional study one employing a single point of data collection for each participant or system being studied. It is used for examining phenomena expected to remain static through the period of interest. It contrasts with a longitudinal s.
electrophysiological s's (EPS) studies from within the heart of its electrical activation and response to electrical stimuli and certain drugs. In general they include intravenous and/or intra-arterial placement of one or more electrode catheters at sites in the atria, ventricles, or coronary sinus, and sometimes the pulmonary artery or aorta. They record activity or stimulate the heart at various rates and cadences and are aids in the evaluation of electrophysiologic properties such as automaticity, conduction, and refractoriness. They also initiate and terminate tachycardias, map the sequence of activation, and aid in evaluation of patients for various forms of therapy and for the response to therapy. During these studies catheter ablation procedures, such as radio frequency ablation and electrical ablation, may be performed.
flow study uroflowmetry.
longitudinal study one in which participants, processes, or systems are studied over time, with data being collected at multiple intervals. The two main types are prospective studies and retrospective studies. It contrasts with a cross-sectional s.
pilot study a smaller version of a proposed research study, conducted to refine the methodology of the later one. It should be as similar to the proposed study as possible, using similar subjects, the same setting, and the same techniques of data collection and analysis.
prospective study an epidemiologic study in which the groups of individuals (cohorts) are selected on the bases of factors that are to be examined for possible effects on some outcome. For example, the effect of exposure to a specific risk factor on the eventual development of a particular disease can be studied. The cohorts are then followed over a period of time to determine the incidence rates of the outcomes being studied as they relate to the original factors in question. Called also cohort study.



The term prospective usually implies a cohort selected in the present and followed into the future, but this method can also be applied to existing longitudinal historical data, such as insurance or medical records. A cohort is identified and classified as to exposure to the risk factor at some date in the past and followed up to the present to determine incidence rates. This is called a historical prospective study, prospective study of past data, or retrospective cohort study.
retrospective study an epidemiologic study in which participating individuals are classified as either having some outcome (cases) or lacking it (controls); the outcome may be a specific disease, and the persons' histories are examined for specific factors that might be associated with that outcome. Cases and controls are often matched with respect to certain demographic or other variables but need not be. As compared to prospective studies, retrospective studies suffer from drawbacks: certain important statistics cannot be measured, and large biases may be introduced both in the selection of controls and in the recall of past exposure to risk factors. The advantage of the retrospective study is its small scale, usually short time for completion, and its applicability to rare diseases, which would require study of very large cohorts in prospective studies. See also prospective s.
urinary flow study uroflowmetry.
voiding pressure study simultaneous measurement of bladder contraction, urinary flow, and sphincter electromyogram.

prospective study

an analytic study designed to determine the relationship between a condition and a characteristic shared by some members of a group. The population selected is healthy at the beginning of the study. Some of the members of the group share a particular characteristic, such as cigarette smoking. The researcher follows the population group over a period of time, noting the rate at which a condition, such as lung cancer, occurs in the smokers and in the nonsmokers. A prospective study may involve many variables or only two; it may seek to demonstrate a relationship that is an association or one that is causal. Prospective studies produce a direct measure of risk called the relative risk. Compare retrospective study.

prospective study

A study design which seeks to assess the association between a hypothesised risk factor and an illness by sampling both exposed and unexposed  subjects (or intervention and non-intervention groups) and then following them for the period of study.

Examples
Concurrent cohort studies, randomised controlled trials.

prospective study

Epidemiology A long-term predictive study designed to observe outcomes or events that occur after identifying a group of subjects to be studied; PSs collect data as the events being evaluated occur; PSs allow testing of hypothesized cause-and-effect relationships, and determine the effect of a therapy on disease progression. See Cohort analytic study. Cf Retrospective study.

prospective study,

n a study designed to determine the relationship between a condition and a characteristic shared by some members of a group. The population selected is healthy at the beginning of the study. Some of the members share a particular characteristic, such as cigarette smoking, whereas others do not. The study follows the population groups over a long period, noting the rate at which a condition, such as lung cancer, occurs in the smokers and in the nonsmokers.

study

a scholarly examination. Specific types of study are also detailed under blind, case-control, cohort, cross-sectional.

analytical study
one in which a phenomenon is described and an attempt made to analyze the effects of variables on the phenomenon.
descriptive study
one in which a phenomenon is described but no attempt is made to analyze the effects of variables on the phenomenon.
follow-up study
one carried out to find out whether there has been change in the situation since the initial study.
longitudinal study
one carried out over a period of time so that chronological time has an opportunity to exert an effect as a variable.
observational study
see descriptive study (above).
prospective study
one in which the data to be studied are yet to be generated, the events having not yet occurred.
retrospective study
one based on examination of existing data, on events that have already occurred.
simulation study
one in which the real circumstances are simulated, either in fact, or by means of a set of mathematical formulae each of which expresses the probability of each outcome in a series of consequential events that mirror the possible pathways in a real-life situation.
References in periodicals archive ?
June 29 /PRNewswire/ -- MedImmune continues to advance its commitment to pediatric research with today's announcement of the first observational prospective study designed to assess the burden of respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) among preterm infants 32-to-35 weeks gestational age (GA) in outpatient settings during their first year of life.
A prospective study of cow milk allergy in Danish infants during the first 3 years of life: clinical course in relation to clinical and immunological type of hypersensitivity reaction.
Prospective study of Chlamydia pneumoniae IgG seropositivity and risks of future myocardial infarction.
Geraghty that the rate of ligation of the external carotid artery in our prospective study was unusually high.
Researchers in this study conducted a retrospective analysis of an ongoing prospective study of patients (n=285), and compared patients who remained continuously on their original treatments (completers, n=96) to those who switched to another therapy or dropped out of the study (n=189).
Treatment of peritonsillar abscess, A prospective study of aspiration vs incision and drainage.
These and other results of a 50-year prospective study of two groups of men, one poor and the other privileged, provide a sobering jolt to some widespread assumptions about alcoholism.
New Data from the Longest Prospective Study Employing Annual Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy Imaging (MRS) Indicate Impact of COPAXONE[R] on Axonal Injury and Recovery
Since 1986, Groopman and an international team of co-workers have been conducting a prospective study of 18,244 initially healthy, middle-aged Chinese men in Shanghai, an aflatoxin-rich region.
This is the first large placebo-controlled prospective study to investigate patients with prior stroke without established coronary heart disease.
But this new finding, reported in the April 16 New England Journal of Medicine, runs counter to the results of a prospective study published earlier this year (SN: 2/15/92, p.
A prospective study from Brigham and Women's Hospital, Boston of 405 children undergoing outpatient surgical procedures found that airway complications during anesthesia or postanesthetic recovery were far more common in children subjected to second hand smoke exposure.
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