Although single nationwide districts provide a high degree of seats-votes proportionality, they tend to be criticized for not forming a (closer) link between the Members of Parliament (MPs) and voters, or rather geographically defined electoral districts.
The data was then analyzed with regard to both the degree of seats-votes proportionality and proportionality of territorial representation (distribution of parliamentary seats among individual regions), including a quantification of the level of parliamentary overrepresentation or under-representation of individual regions of the Slovak Republic with respect to the place of residence of individual MPs.
Mainstream European legal scholarship revolves around three wrong assumptions regarding what proportionality is.
In subsection 1, I show that proportionality is not a principle of positive law, but a reasoning structure of general practical reasoning which is used and applied in legal reasoning.
Laying the Foundation for Proportionality from the Bench
It is at least conceivable that this shift led to a climate of change in which the Advisory Committee felt empowered to take direct action against what it saw as over-discovery by explicitly referencing proportionality and incorporating the proportionality factors into the principal text of Rule 26(b).
In 1983, for example, several of the now-familiar factors of the proportionality
analysis were adopted for the first time with the intention of guarding against "redundant or disproportionate discovery by giving the court authority to reduce the amount of discovery that may be directed to matters that are otherwise proper subjects of inquiry.
joined by Justice Kagan, associated proportionality
The initial chapters of Proportionality
and the Rule of Law examine different conceptions of proportionality
and make it evident that there is no common meaning of the doctrine.
As the authors note, Canadian constitutional law has had a pivotal significance in the global spread of proportionality
Barak exalts the courts as the ultimate guardians of constitutional rights and downplays the many and profound differences that exist between countries that have adopted bills of rights and proportionality
The principle of proportionality
is designed to limit abuse of power and infringement of human rights and freedoms by governments and other public officials to the minimum necessary in the circumstances.