pronation(redirected from pronatio)
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pronation/pro·na·tion/ (-na´shun) the act of assuming the prone position, or the state of being prone. Applied to the hand, the act of turning the palm backward (posteriorly) or downward, performed by medial rotation of the forearm. Applied to the foot, a combination of eversion and abduction movements taking place in the tarsal and metatarsal joints and resulting in lowering of the medial margin of the foot, hence of the longitudinal arch.
pronationThe act of turning to a face down (prone) position, or of rotating the horizontal forearm so that the palm of the hand faces the ground. The opposite movements are called supination.
pronation(1) of the foot: sequence during normal gait after the heel hits the ground, the ankle tends to angle inwards, the foot is supported briefly on its inner side, the arch tends to flatten whilst weight is transferred progressively forwards towards the toes. overpronation flattens the arch excessively; (2) of the forearm: twisting movement of the forearm which brings the palm of the hand to face downwards or backwards. Opposite of supination.
pronationtriplanar foot motion, i.e. eversion, abduction and dorsiflexion, occurring at both subtalar (STJ) and midtarsal (MTJ) joints during normal weight-bearing (see Figure 1); unlocks MTJ, facilitates normal shock absorption and cushions ground surface impact during gait; normal direction of foot movement at midpoint of stance, when medial border of foot is lowered relative to the ground surface; driven by transverse-plane anterior hip rotation in weight-bearing limb
excess pronation increased and/or prolonged compensatory pronatory movements at STJ and MTJ complexes, in response to pathomechanical foot/lower-limb events during gait and weight-bearing (e.g. compensated rearfoot and/or forefoot varus, actual or relative limb length discrepancy, genu valgum, increased Q angle, coxa vara); foot pronation persisting late into stance phase of gait cycle dictates that the foot must function from a pronated rather than a supinated position at toe off; associated with excessive foot joint movements leading to first-ray abnormalities and pathologies, lesser-toe deformities, chronic metatarsalgia, mid- and rearfoot pathologies, shin splints, leg length discrepancy (where excess foot pronation occurs in the longer leg), medial knee and lower-back pain