But the unavoidable realities of today's world are that we live in an era of (a) enormous, and expanding, global trade, (b) rapidly growing indigenous, scientific and engineering capabilities in the proliferant
states, and (c) ever wider availability of dual use technology.
Moreover, since ambiguity works to the proliferant
's advantage--both in terms of bargaining power and deterrence--North Korea has done what any cunning proliferant
A more troubling concern than this "supply-driven" smuggling, motivated by criminals put for profit, is "demand-driven" smuggling, representing a specific request from a would-be proliferant
state or subnational group.
Thus, Western actions may be severely limited until proliferant
countries are prepared to initiate change on their own.
The prolotherapy technique involves a series of 6 to 8 treatments with injections of a proliferant
that causes an inflammatory response, which stimulates the healing process.
The Global Threat Reduction Program (formerly the Nonproliferation of WMD Expertise program) to support specialized activities aimed at reducing the threat of terrorist or proliferant
state acquisition of WMD materials, equipment, and expertise.
Unobligated balances under the heading Former Soviet Union Threat Reduction, $30,000,000 shall be transferred to Department of State, Nonproliferation, Anti-Terrorist, Demining, and Related Programs only for the purpose of supporting expansion of the Biological Weapons Redirect and International Science and Technology Centers programs, to prevent former Soviet biological weapons experts from emigrating to proliferant
states and to reconfigure former Soviet biological weapons production facilities for peaceful uses.
Contrary to popular belief, an FMCT is not necessarily the "next logical step" towards nuclear disarmament, and despite wishful thinking, it will not succeed in achieving through the backdoor what the NPT has not achieved: capture of the three non-NPT proliferant
Finally, the policy of economic constraint reduces whatever pacifying benefits do obtain from the spread of trade and commerce in goods and ideas; it undermines the viability of both those domestic constituencies in the proliferant
countries that have a stake in greater international integration (as opposed to narrowly nationalistic ambitions) and those ideas which affirm the belief that competition for absolute gains is preferable to self-defeating struggles about relative gains.
Criminals, terrorists, or proliferant
governments could find it easy to acquire nuclear weapons-related materials from poorly guarded facilities there.
Syria is a major missile proliferant
in the Middle East with a long track record of seeking to obtain weapons of mass destruction and ballistic missiles to deliver them.
deterrence strategies can be tailored to each proliferant