Collaborative groups of 4 were established and student roles within the groups were based on the 4 principles of instrumentation (grasp, fulcrum, adaptation, stroke).
The dependent variables were represented by the principles of instrumentation and the advancement of intellectual development along Perry's Scheme.
Subsequent exercises asked students to problem solve the principles of instrumentation in comparison to each new instrument introduced.
The pre-clinical post-test was designed to evaluate the students' ability to apply the principles of instrumentation to 3 unfamiliar instruments.
Three unfamiliar instruments were presented to the students, who were then asked to determine how these instruments should be used according to the principles of instrumentation.
The pre-clinical post-test evaluated student ability to apply the principles of instrumentation to 3 unfamiliar instruments: Langer 17/18, Gracey 13/14 and Gracey 9/10.
Forty-six percent of students in the collaborative group, as compared to 22% in the traditional group, felt they learned the principles of instrumentation extremely well, while 57% of students in the collaborative group and 35% of students in the traditional group felt they strongly increased their commitment to the profession.