Logistical regression analysis--independent predictors of vaginal delivery achieved within 24 hours Odds ratios Parameters p-value (95% confidence intervals) Primiparity
Known risk factors for IUGR, such as primiparity
, weight gain during pregnancy, body mass index, previous IUGR, history of preeclampsia, cigarette smoking, and intake of multivitamin supplements during pregnancy, were all strongly associated in the expected direction with IUGR (case/ control status) as well as with birthweight (data not shown).
6 missing = 2,902 Clinical factors Primiparity
(missing = 671) 38.
was slightly more common among case than control mothers, as were complications during labor or delivery (p < 0.
Possible explanations for these findings include primiparity
, the higher rate of multiple pregnancies, and the increased maternal age of this obstetric population.
I included race, sex, and gestational age as confounding variables in all analyses, as well as the following risk factors known to be associated with IUGR: weight gain during pregnancy, prepregnancy body mass index (BMI), parity, history of preeclampsia, prior history of IUGR, primiparity
, and smoking during pregnancy.
, prolonged second stage of labor, and large infant head size were also significant risk factors for third-degree tears (J.
SAN DIEGO -- Regional anesthesia, instrumental delivery, mediolateral episiotomy, and primiparity
were each associated with an increased risk of postpartum urinary retention after vaginal delivery in a retrospective study.
Maternal age and primiparity
have been significantly associated with hypospadias, although some studies have questioned the maternal age effect (35).