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inability to perform properly an allotted function; called also incompetence.
adrenal insufficiency abnormally diminished activity of the adrenal gland; called also hypoadrenalism.
adrenocortical insufficiency abnormally diminished secretion of corticosteroids by the adrenal cortex; see also addison's disease. Called also hypoadrenocorticism and hypocorticism.
aortic insufficiency inadequate closure of the aortic valve, permitting aortic regurgitation.
coronary insufficiency decreased supply of blood to the myocardium resulting from constriction or obstruction of the coronary arteries, but not accompanied by necrosis of the myocardial cells. Called also myocardial ischemia.
ileocecal insufficiency inability of the ileocecal valve to prevent backflow of contents from the cecum into the ileum.
mitral insufficiency inadequate closure of the mitral valve, permitting mitral regurgitation.
placental insufficiency dysfunction of the placenta, with reduction in the area of exchange of nutrients; it often leads to fetal growth retardation.
pulmonary valve insufficiency inadequate closure of the pulmonary valve, permitting pulmonic regurgitation.
respiratory insufficiency see respiratory insufficiency.
thyroid insufficiency hypothyroidism.
tricuspid insufficiency incomplete closure of the tricuspid valve, resulting in tricuspid regurgitation.
valvular insufficiency failure of a cardiac valve to close perfectly, causing valvular regurgitation; see also aortic, mitral, pulmonary, and tricuspid insufficiency.
velopharyngeal insufficiency inadequate velopharyngeal closure, due to a condition such as cleft palate or muscular dysfunction, resulting in defective speech.
venous insufficiency inadequacy of the venous valves and impairment of venous return from the lower limbs (venous stasis), often with edema and sometimes with stasis ulcers at the ankle.


/hy·po·adre·no·cor·ti·cism/ (-ah-drēn″o-kort´is-izm) adrenocortical insufficiency.

hypoadrenocorticism (hī´pōə-drēnōkôr´tisizəm),


diminished hormone production from the cortex of the adrenal gland. In all species, injury to the gland may occur from hemorrhage, mineralization, amyloid deposition, or invasion by infectious agents but clinical signs of insufficiency rarely occur except in the dog.

immune-mediated hypoadrenocorticism
see primary hypoadrenocorticism (below).
primary hypoadrenocorticism
occurs most often in dogs, usually the result of an idiopathic atrophy of the adrenal glands involving all layers of the cortex. Immune-mediated mechanisms are suspected. The clinical effects are related to insufficient production of mineralocorticoids causing hyponatremia, hypochloremia and hyperkalemia. Hypovolemia, prerenal azotemia and cardiac conduction abnormalities lead to weakness, vomiting, diarrhea and bradycardia. Deficiency of glucocorticoids may also cause hypoglycemia. Called also Addison's disease, immune-mediated hypoadrenocorticism.
secondary hypoadrenocorticism
lesions of the pituitary and, more commonly in dogs, the long-term administration of corticosteroids which causes a reduced secretion of ACTH and leads to reduced synthesis and low blood levels of glucocorticoids. Mineralocorticoid levels remain normal.
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