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Related to prilocaine: Prilocaine hydrochloride, Articaine
prilocaine/pril·o·caine/ (pril´o-kān) a local anesthetic, used parenterally as the hydrochloride salt or topically, together with lidocaine, as the base.
prilocaineA local anaesthetic drug normally given by injection. A brand name is Citanest. The drug can also be applied in a cream for surface anaesthesia under the brand name EMLA.
prilocaine; Citanest relatively short- to moderate-acting local anaesthetic agent of low systemic toxicity, similar to but less vasodilatory than lidocaine; maximum safe dose = 400mg for a 70-kg adult; should not be used on pregnant/lactating women as its metabolites can cause fetal/infant methaemoglobinaemia; avoid use on patients with severe/untreated hypertension or severe heart disease; dosage should be reduced for elderly or debilitated patients, or those with hepatic or renal impairment; high strengths may cause ocular toxicity (see local anaesthetic (LA) administration, pregnancy; Table 1 and Table 2)
|Agent (brand name)||Maximum safe dose (70-kg adult)||Dose per kg of body mass|
|Mass of drug administered||Amount of drugs administered in relation to proportional MSDs||Percentage of combined MSD|
|e.g. 70-kg adult|
| Agent 1 |
6mL lidocaine 2%
|120mg||Equivalent to (120/200) × 100% = 60% of MSD lidocaine||77%|
| Agent 2 |
5mL bupivacaine 0.5%
|25mg||Equivalent to (25/150) × 100% = 17% of MSD bupivacaine|
|e.g. 40-kg child|
| Agent 1 |
4mL lidocaine 2%
|80mg||Equivalent to (80/120) × 100% = 77% of MSD lidocaine||89.5%|
| Agent 2 |
2mL bupivacaine 0.5%
|10mg||Equivalent to (10/80) × 100% = 12.5% of MSD bupivacaine|
Where more than one anaesthetic agent is injected in order to achieve both rapid anaesthesia and prolonged postoperative pain relief, the proportional MSD of each of the anaesthetic agents should be calculated, in order not to exceed the combined MSD.
The calculation is the product of the patient's body mass, the percentage mass of the individual anaesthetic agent and the total volume used of each local anaesthetic drug.
In the examples cited in this table, safe doses of anaesthesia would have been administered, as the combined doses of each anaesthetic does not exceed 100%.