premenstrual

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premenstrual

 [pre-men´stroo-al]
preceding menstruation.
premenstrual dysphoric disorder premenstrual syndrome viewed as a psychiatric disorder.
premenstrual syndrome (PMS) the presence of symptoms in the period before menstruation or in the early days of the menstrual period; also called premenstrual tension. Definition and diagnosis depend on the timing and the cyclic nature of symptoms rather than on specific clinical manifestations, which can vary greatly from one patient to another but follow a consistent pattern in the individual from cycle to cycle.

Various psychological and emotional causes of this syndrome have been proposed; only recently has serious attention been paid to it as a physical as well as a psychological phenomenon. Research has shown that onset and increased severity of symptoms often occur when rapid hormonal changes are taking place, e.g., at puberty, after a pregnancy, or when oral contraceptives are discontinued. A transient increase in water retention seems to account for edema, weight gain, bloating, and breast changes. Other etiologic factors may be an estrogen-progesterone imbalance, hypoglycemia, vitamin deficiencies, prostaglandins, and psychogenic disturbances.
Symptoms. Symptoms may begin at the time of ovulation and increase until the menses, or they may appear at ovulation, abate, and then reappear and increase until menses. In some cases they arise only a few days before the onset of menstruation. In true PMS the symptoms cease with the onset of menses or last no more than a few days into the cycle.

Premenstrual syndrome can affect virtually every system of the body and produce behavioral changes that have significant psychosocial impact. Physical symptoms may include headache, vertigo, or paresthesias; common colds, rhinitis, asthma, sinusitis, or sore throat; abdominal bloating, nausea, or food cravings; breast tenderness and engorgement; backache, joint pain, and edema; and others. Psychological or emotional symptoms may include irritability, tiredness with sleep disturbance, mood swings, depression, and altered libido.
Treatment. Successful management of the syndrome is difficult and protocols vary greatly, probably because there is no clear understanding of the causes. Therapies include progesterone therapy, administration of vitamin B6 daily, and curtailment of intake of sodium, methylxanthines (coffee, tea, and chocolate), and nicotine. Additionally, the patient may be advised to restrict the intake of refined sugar, alcohol, and animal fats. Increasing the intake of vegetable oils may be recommended in order to enhance prostaglandin formation.
Patient Care. A major goal of intervention is the promotion of self-care strategies. For example, the patient is encouraged to keep a menstrual calendar to validate cyclic changes and to give her a sense of purposeful management of her life. She may then plan to avoid stressful events during the time symptoms are present. Counseling can help identify sources of stress and effective mechanisms to deal with stressful situations. Sufficient sleep and rest are needed because fatigue tends to exaggerate the symptoms. Moderate exercise can increase the patient's sense of well-being. A nutritious diet is also helpful, especially the inclusion of foods that are natural sources of the B vitamins and magnesium. The intake of sodium, caffeine, and refined sugar should be limited and alcohol and tobacco avoided.

Severe premenstrual symptoms can seriously disrupt vital human relationships, leading to domestic problems including child abuse and other acts of violence. Health care providers will need to be aware of the psychosocial ramifications of premenstrual syndrome and to facilitate positive coping behaviors, make referrals to agencies prepared to deal with these kinds of problems, and provide support and counseling when indicated.

pre·men·stru·al

(prē-men'strū-ăl),
Relating to the period of time preceding menstruation.

premenstrual

/pre·men·stru·al/ (pre-men´stroo-al) occurring before menstruation.

premenstrual

(prē-mĕn′stro͞o-əl)
adj.
Of, relating to, or occurring in the period just before menstruation.

pre·men′stru·al·ly adv.

premenstrual

[-men′stro̅o̅·əl]
Etymology: L, prae, before, menstrualis, monthly
before the start of menstruation each month.

pre·men·stru·al

(prē-men'strū-ăl)
Relating to the period of time preceding menstruation.

pre·men·stru·al

(prē-men'strū-ăl)
Relating to the period of time preceding menstruation.
References in periodicals archive ?
Therefore, although it is not listed as its own disorder (it no longer has its own numerical diagnostic code), women can easily be pathologized as premenstrually mentally ill, simply by being given the codified diagnosis of Depressive Disorder NOS.
Female hormones also have an effect - you may get drunk quicker premenstrually and mid-cycle during ovulation.
For example, some women find that hormonal fluctuations may affect how certain medications work or increase their need for medication: headaches experienced premenstrually, for instance, may increase a woman's use of pain relievers.
Females who are copper deficient premenstrually are likely to become "chocoholics" due to chocolate's high quantity of copper.
The patient's history of dizziness beginning shortly after childbirth and becoming worse premenstrually, as well as the CT findings of otosclerosis, are consistent with a diagnosis of otosclerosis.
Diagnosing PMDD is complicated when women who present with PMDD also have a history of mood, personality and anxiety disorders, substance abuse and exacerbated symptoms of ongoing mood disorders premenstrually (Breaux et al.
Approximately 50% of subjects reported that their fluid retention was a premenstrually exacerbated condition, and the vast majority had been suffering from the problem for longer than 2 years.
Trichologist Philip Kingsley says that not only does oil production increase premenstrually but: "Many women feel more stress and this increases sweat production.
For instance, evidence suggests that women with increased sensitivity of the serotonin system have a higher risk of developing PMDD, since the fluctuations in estrogen and progesterone levels that occur premenstrually have a direct effect on the availability of serotonin precursors.
Just about anything can be worse premenstrually," she said.
For every woman who just wants to take medication premenstrually, another can't be bothered to remember when to start and feels better if she takes it all the time," she added.