premenstrual

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premenstrual

 [pre-men´stroo-al]
preceding menstruation.
premenstrual dysphoric disorder premenstrual syndrome viewed as a psychiatric disorder.
premenstrual syndrome (PMS) the presence of symptoms in the period before menstruation or in the early days of the menstrual period; also called premenstrual tension. Definition and diagnosis depend on the timing and the cyclic nature of symptoms rather than on specific clinical manifestations, which can vary greatly from one patient to another but follow a consistent pattern in the individual from cycle to cycle.

Various psychological and emotional causes of this syndrome have been proposed; only recently has serious attention been paid to it as a physical as well as a psychological phenomenon. Research has shown that onset and increased severity of symptoms often occur when rapid hormonal changes are taking place, e.g., at puberty, after a pregnancy, or when oral contraceptives are discontinued. A transient increase in water retention seems to account for edema, weight gain, bloating, and breast changes. Other etiologic factors may be an estrogen-progesterone imbalance, hypoglycemia, vitamin deficiencies, prostaglandins, and psychogenic disturbances.
Symptoms. Symptoms may begin at the time of ovulation and increase until the menses, or they may appear at ovulation, abate, and then reappear and increase until menses. In some cases they arise only a few days before the onset of menstruation. In true PMS the symptoms cease with the onset of menses or last no more than a few days into the cycle.

Premenstrual syndrome can affect virtually every system of the body and produce behavioral changes that have significant psychosocial impact. Physical symptoms may include headache, vertigo, or paresthesias; common colds, rhinitis, asthma, sinusitis, or sore throat; abdominal bloating, nausea, or food cravings; breast tenderness and engorgement; backache, joint pain, and edema; and others. Psychological or emotional symptoms may include irritability, tiredness with sleep disturbance, mood swings, depression, and altered libido.
Treatment. Successful management of the syndrome is difficult and protocols vary greatly, probably because there is no clear understanding of the causes. Therapies include progesterone therapy, administration of vitamin B6 daily, and curtailment of intake of sodium, methylxanthines (coffee, tea, and chocolate), and nicotine. Additionally, the patient may be advised to restrict the intake of refined sugar, alcohol, and animal fats. Increasing the intake of vegetable oils may be recommended in order to enhance prostaglandin formation.
Patient Care. A major goal of intervention is the promotion of self-care strategies. For example, the patient is encouraged to keep a menstrual calendar to validate cyclic changes and to give her a sense of purposeful management of her life. She may then plan to avoid stressful events during the time symptoms are present. Counseling can help identify sources of stress and effective mechanisms to deal with stressful situations. Sufficient sleep and rest are needed because fatigue tends to exaggerate the symptoms. Moderate exercise can increase the patient's sense of well-being. A nutritious diet is also helpful, especially the inclusion of foods that are natural sources of the B vitamins and magnesium. The intake of sodium, caffeine, and refined sugar should be limited and alcohol and tobacco avoided.

Severe premenstrual symptoms can seriously disrupt vital human relationships, leading to domestic problems including child abuse and other acts of violence. Health care providers will need to be aware of the psychosocial ramifications of premenstrual syndrome and to facilitate positive coping behaviors, make referrals to agencies prepared to deal with these kinds of problems, and provide support and counseling when indicated.

pre·men·stru·al

(prē-men'strū-ăl),
Relating to the period of time preceding menstruation.

premenstrual

/pre·men·stru·al/ (pre-men´stroo-al) occurring before menstruation.

premenstrual

(prē-mĕn′stro͞o-əl)
adj.
Of, relating to, or occurring in the period just before menstruation.

pre·men′stru·al·ly adv.

premenstrual

[-men′stro̅o̅·əl]
Etymology: L, prae, before, menstrualis, monthly
before the start of menstruation each month.

pre·men·stru·al

(prē-men'strū-ăl)
Relating to the period of time preceding menstruation.

pre·men·stru·al

(prē-men'strū-ăl)
Relating to the period of time preceding menstruation.
References in periodicals archive ?
Flavonoids were more effective in reducing premenstrually exacerbated fluid retention (Fig.
For instance, evidence suggests that women with increased sensitivity of the serotonin system have a higher risk of developing PMDD, since the fluctuations in estrogen and progesterone levels that occur premenstrually have a direct effect on the availability of serotonin precursors.
Just about anything can be worse premenstrually," she said.
For every woman who just wants to take medication premenstrually, another can't be bothered to remember when to start and feels better if she takes it all the time," she added.
For example, sleep medication may need to be increased during winter or hot humid months, premenstrually each month, and during periods of intense stress.
They can experience it either premenstrually or during their periods.
Women are more likely to attempt or commit suicide premenstrually when sex steroid levels are low (Fink, 1995).
And eight out of 14 had at least a 20 percent decrease in PEFR premenstrually.
Migraines triggered by hormonal phenomena are experienced by some women premenstrually.
Washington, Jan 23 ( ANI ): Women's emotional responses can vary significantly premenstrually.
Premenstrually this unphysiological prolactin release is so high that the serum prolactin levels often approach heights which are misinterpreted as prolactinomas.
I don't do anything unless a patient [perhaps 1 in 20] tells me symptoms are worse premenstrually, in which case I will increase the [dosage at this point of the cycle]" by perhaps 10%, Dr.